Climate Dynamics

, Volume 43, Issue 7–8, pp 1811–1827 | Cite as

Impact of bio-physical feedbacks on the tropical climate in coupled and uncoupled GCMs

  • Jong-Yeon Park
  • Jong-Seong KugEmail author
  • Hyodae Seo
  • Jürgen Bader


The bio-physical feedback process between the marine ecosystem and the tropical climate system is investigated using both an ocean circulation model and a fully-coupled ocean–atmosphere circulation model, which interact with a biogeochemical model. We found that the presence of chlorophyll can have significant impact on the characteristics of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), including its amplitude and asymmetry, as well as on the mean state. That is, chlorophyll generally increases mean sea surface temperature (SST) due to the direct biological heating. However, SST in the eastern equatorial Pacific decreases due to the stronger indirect dynamical response to the biological effects outweighing the direct thermal response. It is demonstrated that this biologically-induced SST cooling is intensified and conveyed to other tropical-ocean basins when atmosphere–ocean coupling is taken into account. It is also found that the presence of chlorophyll affects the magnitude of ENSO by two different mechanisms; one is an amplifying effect by the mean chlorophyll, which is associated with shoaling of the mean thermocline depth, and the other is a damping effect derived from the interactively-varying chlorophyll coupled with the physical model. The atmosphere–ocean coupling reduces the biologically-induced ENSO amplifying effect through the weakening of atmospheric feedback. Lastly, there is also a biological impact on ENSO which enhances the positive skewness. This skewness change is presumably caused by the phase dependency of thermocline feedback which affects the ENSO magnitude.


ENSO Tropical mean climate Biological feedback 



This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea Grant Funded by Korean Government (MEST) (NRF-2009-C1AAA001-2009-0093).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jong-Yeon Park
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jong-Seong Kug
    • 3
    Email author
  • Hyodae Seo
    • 4
  • Jürgen Bader
    • 1
    • 5
  1. 1.Max Planck Institute for MeteorologyHamburgGermany
  2. 2.International Max Planck Research School On Earth System ModellingHamburgGermany
  3. 3.Korea Institute of Ocean Science and TechnologyAnsan, SeoulSouth Korea
  4. 4.Woods Hole Oceanographic InstitutionWoods HoleUSA
  5. 5.Geophysical InstituteUniversity of BergenBergenNorway

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