Advertisement

Climate Dynamics

, Volume 41, Issue 2, pp 517–532 | Cite as

The rendition of the Atlantic Warm Pool in the reanalyses

  • Vasubandhu Misra
  • Ashley Stroman
  • Steven DiNapoli
Article

Abstract

The Atlantic Warm Pool (AWP) region, which is comprised of the Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea and parts of the northwestern tropical Atlantic Ocean, is one of the most poorly observed parts of the global oceans. This study compares three ocean reanalyses, namely the Global Ocean Data Assimilation System of National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) of NCEP, and the Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA) for its AWP variation. The surface temperature in these ocean reanalyses is also compared with that from the Extended Range SST version 3 and Optimally Interpolated SST version 2 SST analyses. In addition we also compare three atmospheric reanalyses: NCEP-NCAR (R1), NCEP-DOE (R2), and CFSR for the associated atmospheric variability with the AWP. The comparison shows that there are important differences in the climatology of the AWP and its interannual variations. There are considerable differences in the subsurface ocean manifestation of the AWP with SODA (CFSR) showing the least (largest) modulation of the subsurface ocean temperatures. The remote teleconnections with the tropical Indian Ocean are also different across the reanalyses. However, all three oceanic reanalyses consistently show the absence of any teleconnection with the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean. The influence of the AWP on the tropospheric temperature anomalies last for up to a one season lead and it is found to be relatively weak in R1 reanalyses. A simplified SST anomaly equation initially derived for diagnosing El Niño Southern Oscillation variability is adapted for the AWP variations in this study. The analysis of this equation reveals that the main contribution of the SST variation in the AWP region is from the variability of the net heat flux. All three reanalyses consistently show that the role of the ocean advective terms, including that associated with upwelling in the AWP region, is comparatively much smaller. The covariance of the SST tendency in the AWP with the net heat flux is large, with significant contributions from the variations of the surface shortwave and longwave fluxes.

Keywords

Atlantic Warm Pool ENSO Tropospheric temperature 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research was supported by NOAA grant NA09OAR4310170, USGS grant G10AC00149 and CDC grant U01EH000421.

References

  1. Behringer D, Xue Y (2004) Evaluation of the global ocean data assimilation system at NCEP: the Pacific Ocean. Eighth symposium on integrated observing and assimilation systems for atmosphere, oceans, and land surface, AMS 84th annual meeting, Washington State Convention and Trade Center, Seattle, Washington, 11–15 JanGoogle Scholar
  2. Breigleb BP, Minnis P, Ramanathan V, Harrison E (1996) Comparison of radiational clear-sky albedos inferred from satellite observations and model computations. J Clim Appl Meteor 25:214–226Google Scholar
  3. Campana KA, Hou Y-T, Mitchell KE, Yang S-K, Cullather R (1994) Improved diagnostic cloud parameterization in NMC’s global model. In: Preprints, 10th Conf. on numerical weather prediction, Portland, OR, Am. Meteor. Soc., pp 324–325Google Scholar
  4. Carton JA, Giese BS (2008) A reanalysis of ocean climate using simple ocean data assimilation (SODA). Mon Weather Rev 136:2999–3017CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Carton JA, Chepurin G, Cao X (2000a) A simple ocean data assimilation analysis of the global upper ocean 1950–1995. Part 1: methodology. J Phys Ocean 30:294–309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Carton JA, Chepurin G, Cao X (2000b) A simple ocean data assimilation analysis of the global upper ocean 1950–1995. PartII: results. J Phys Ocean 30:311–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chiang JCH, Sobel AH (2002) Tropical tropospheric temperature variations caused by ENSO and their influence on the remote tropical climate. J Clim 15:2616–2631CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chou M-D (1992) A solar radiation model for use in climate studies. J Atmos Sci 49:762–772CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chou M-D, Lee K-T (1996) Parameterization for the absorption of solar radiation by water vapor and ozone. J Atmos Sci 53:1203–1208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Clement AC, Seager R, Murtugudde R (2005) Why are there tropical warm pools? J Clim 18:5294–5311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Conkright ME, Levitus S, O’Brien T, Boyer TP, Stephens C, Johnson D, Baranoca O, Antonov J, Gelfield R, Rochester J, Forgy C (1999) World ocean database 1998, documentation and quality control version 2.0, national oceanographic data center internal report 14, national oceanographic data center, Silver Spring, MDGoogle Scholar
  12. Derber JC, Parris DF, Lord SJ (1991) The new global operational analysis system at the National Meteorological Center. Mon Weather Rev 6:538–547Google Scholar
  13. Enfield DB, Mayer DA (1997) Tropical Atlantic sea surface temperature variability and its relation to El Niño-Southern Oscillation. J Geophys Res 102:929–945CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Higgins W, Shi W (2001) Intercomparison of the principal modes of interannual and intraseasonal variability of the North American monsoon system. J Clim 14:403–417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Horel JD, Wallace JM (1981) Planetary-scale atmospheric phenomena associated with the Southern oscillation. Mon Weather Rev 109:813–829CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kalnay E et al (1996) The NMC/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project. Bull Am Soc 77:437–471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kanamitsu M, Ebisuzaki W, Woollen J, Yang S-K, Fiorino JJ, Potter GL (2002) NCEP-DOE AMIP-II reanalysis (R-2). Bull Am Soc 83:1631–1643CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kang I-S, An I-S, Jin F–F (2001) A systematic approximation of the sst anomaly equation for enso. J Meteor Soc 79:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kleist DT, Parrish DF, Derber JC, Treadon R, Errico RM, Yang R (2009) Improving incremental balance in the GSI 3DVAR analysis system. Mon Weather Rev 137:1046–1060CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lee S-K, Wang C, Enfield D (2008) A simple atmospheric model of the local and teleconnection responses to tropical heating anomalies. J Clim 22:227–284Google Scholar
  21. Maloney E, Hartmann D (2000) Modulation of the hurricane activity in the Gulf of Mexico by the Madden-Julian oscillation. Science 287:2002–2004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Misra V (2008) Coupled interactions of the monsoons. Geophys Res Lett 35:L12705. doi: 10.1029/2008GL033562 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Misra V (2009) Harvesting model uncertainty for simulation of interannual variability. J Geophys Res 114:D161113. doi: 10.1029/2008JD011686 Google Scholar
  24. Misra V et al (2010) The IASCLiP modeling plan. Available from http://www.eol.ucar.edu/projects/iasclip/documentation/IASCLIP.Modelplan_latest.pdf
  25. Pan H-L, Mahrt L (1987) Interaction between soil hydrology and boundary layer developments. Boundary-Layer Meterol 38:185–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Parrish DF, Derber JC (1992) The national meteorological center’s spectral statistical interpolation analysis system. Mon Weather Rev 120:1747–1763CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Penland C, Matrsova L (2008) A southern hemisphere footprint in American Midwest precipitation. Geophys Res Lett L09703. doi: 10.1029/2008GL033612
  28. Reynolds RW, Rayner NA, Smith TM, Stokes DC, Wang W (2002) An improved in situ and satellite SST analysis for climate. J Clim 15:1609–1625CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Saha S et al (2010) The NCEP climate forecast system reanalysis. Bull Am Soc. doi: 10.1175/2010BAMS3001.1
  30. Smith RD, Dukowicz JK, Malone RC (1992) Parallel ocean general circulation modeling. Physica D 60:38–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Smith TM, Reynolds RW, Peterson TC, Lawrimore J (2008) Improvements to NOAA’s historical merged land-ocean surface temperature analysis (1880–2006). J Clim 21:2283–2296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Sobel AH, Held IM, Bretherton CS (2002) The ENSO signal in tropical tropospheric temperature. J Clim 15:2702–2706CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Tester PA, Feldman RL, Nau AW, Kibler SR, Litaker RW (2010) Ciguatera fish poisoning and sea surface temperatures in the Caribbean Sea and the West Indies. Toxicon. doi: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2010.02.026
  34. Wang C, Enfield DB (2001) The tropical western hemisphere warm pool. Geophys Res Lett 28:1635–1638CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Wang C, Enfield D (2003) A further study of the tropical Western Hemisphere Warm Pool. J Clim 6:1476–1493CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Wang C, Lee S-K (2007) Atlantic warm pool, Caribbean low-level jet, and their potential impact on Atlantic hurricanes. Geophys Res Lett 34. doi: 10.1029/2006GL028579
  37. Wang C, Enfield DB, Lee S-K, Landsea C (2006) Influences of the Atlantic warm pool on Western Hemisphere summer rainfall and Atlantic hurricanes. J Clim 19:3011–3028CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Wang C, Lee S-K, Enfield DB (2008) Climate response to anomalously large and small Atlantic Warm pools during the summer. J Clim 21:2437–2450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Wang W, Xie P, Yoo S-H, Xue Y, Kumar A, Wu X (2010) An assessment of the surface climate in the NCEP climate forecast system reanalysis. Climate Dyn. doi: 10.1007/s00382-010-0935-7
  40. Yulaeva E, Wallace JM (1994) The signature of ENSO in global temperature and precipitation fields derived from the microwave sounding unit. J Clim 7:1719–1736CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Zheng Y, Giese BS (2009) Ocean heat structure in simple ocean data assimilation: structure and mechanism. J Geophys Res 114. doi: 10.1029/2008JC005190
  42. Zheng Y, Shinoda T, Kiladis G, Lin J, Metzger EJ, Hurlburt HE, Geise BS (2010) Upper-Ocean processes under the stratus cloud deck in the southeaset Pacific Ocean. J Phys Oceanogr 40:103–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vasubandhu Misra
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Ashley Stroman
    • 1
  • Steven DiNapoli
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric ScienceFlorida State UniversityTallahasseeUSA
  2. 2.Center for Ocean-Atmospheric Prediction StudiesFlorida State UniversityTallahasseeUSA
  3. 3.Florida Climate InstituteFlorida State UniversityTallahasseeUSA

Personalised recommendations