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Climate Dynamics

, Volume 39, Issue 7–8, pp 1951–1968 | Cite as

Global response to solar radiation absorbed by phytoplankton in a coupled climate model

  • Lavinia Patara
  • Marcello Vichi
  • Simona Masina
  • Pier Giuseppe Fogli
  • Elisa Manzini
Article

Abstract

The global climate response to solar radiation absorbed by phytoplankton is investigated by performing multi-century simulations with a coupled ocean–atmosphere-biogeochemistry model. The absorption of solar radiation by phytoplankton increases radiative heating in the near-surface ocean and raises sea surface temperature (SST) by overall ~0.5°C. The resulting increase in evaporation enhances specific atmospheric humidity by 2–5%, thereby increasing the Earth’s greenhouse effect and the atmospheric temperatures. The Hadley Cell exhibits a weakening and poleward expansion, therefore reducing cloudiness at subtropical-middle latitudes and increasing it at tropical latitudes except near the Equator. Higher SST at polar latitudes reduces sea ice cover and albedo, thereby increasing the high-latitude ocean absorption of solar radiation. Changes in the atmospheric baroclinicity cause a poleward intensification of mid-latitude westerly winds in both hemispheres. As a result, the North Atlantic Ocean meridional overturning circulation extends more northward, and the equatorward Ekman transport is enhanced in the Southern Ocean. The combination of local and dynamical processes decreases upper-ocean heat content in the Tropics and in the subpolar Southern Ocean, and increases it at middle latitudes. This study highlights the relevance of coupled ocean–atmosphere processes in the global climate response to phytoplankton solar absorption. Given that simulated impacts of phytoplankton on physical climate are within the range of natural climate variability, this study suggests the importance of phytoplankton as an internal constituent of the Earth’s climate and its potential role in participating in its long-term climate adjustments.

Keywords

Coupled climate model Bio-physical interactions Solar radiation Climate Marine biogeochemical model Phytoplankton radiative heating Ocean circulation 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study was funded by Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC). The authors thank the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) for making available ERA-40 wind stress data, the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for providing SeaWiFS chlorophyll satellite products, and the Hadley Centre for the sea surface temperature data available on the website http://www.metoffice.gov.uk/hadobs. The authors thank E. Schneider for his comments on a previous version of the manuscript. Two anonymous reviewers are also gratefully acknowledged.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lavinia Patara
    • 1
    • 2
  • Marcello Vichi
    • 1
    • 4
  • Simona Masina
    • 1
    • 4
  • Pier Giuseppe Fogli
    • 1
  • Elisa Manzini
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC)BolognaItaly
  2. 2.Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel (GEOMAR)KielGermany
  3. 3.Max-Planck-Institut für MeteorologieHamburgGermany
  4. 4.Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC)Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)BolognaItaly

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