Climate Dynamics

, Volume 39, Issue 11, pp 2611–2629 | Cite as

EC-Earth V2.2: description and validation of a new seamless earth system prediction model

  • W. HazelegerEmail author
  • X. Wang
  • C. Severijns
  • S. Ştefănescu
  • R. Bintanja
  • A. Sterl
  • K. Wyser
  • T. Semmler
  • S. Yang
  • B. van den Hurk
  • T. van Noije
  • E. van der Linden
  • K. van der Wiel


EC-Earth, a new Earth system model based on the operational seasonal forecast system of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), is presented. The performance of version 2.2 (V2.2) of the model is compared to observations, reanalysis data and other coupled atmosphere–ocean-sea ice models. The large-scale physical characteristics of the atmosphere, ocean and sea ice are well simulated. When compared to other coupled models with similar complexity, the model performs well in simulating tropospheric fields and dynamic variables, and performs less in simulating surface temperature and fluxes. The surface temperatures are too cold, with the exception of the Southern Ocean region and parts of the Northern Hemisphere extratropics. The main patterns of interannual climate variability are well represented. Experiments with enhanced CO2 concentrations show well-known responses of Arctic amplification, land-sea contrasts, tropospheric warming and stratospheric cooling. The global climate sensitivity of the current version of EC-Earth is slightly less than 1 K/(W m−2). An intensification of the hydrological cycle is found and strong regional changes in precipitation, affecting monsoon characteristics. The results show that a coupled model based on an operational seasonal prediction system can be used for climate studies, supporting emerging seamless prediction strategies.


Couple Model Intercomparison Project Phase Numerical Weather Prediction Model Warm Bias South Atlantic Convergence Zone Integrate Forecast System 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. Hazeleger
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • X. Wang
    • 1
  • C. Severijns
    • 1
  • S. Ştefănescu
    • 3
  • R. Bintanja
    • 1
  • A. Sterl
    • 1
  • K. Wyser
    • 4
  • T. Semmler
    • 5
  • S. Yang
    • 6
  • B. van den Hurk
    • 1
  • T. van Noije
    • 1
  • E. van der Linden
    • 1
  • K. van der Wiel
    • 2
  1. 1.Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI)De BiltThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Wageningen University (WU)WageningenThe Netherlands
  3. 3.European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF)ReadingUK
  4. 4.Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI)NorrköpingSweden
  5. 5.Irish Meteorological Institute (MetEireann)DublinIreland
  6. 6.Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI)CopenhagenDenmark

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