Climate Dynamics

, Volume 39, Issue 7–8, pp 1673–1680 | Cite as

IOD and ENSO impacts on the extreme stream-flows of Citarum river in Indonesia

  • Netrananda Sahu
  • Swadhin K. Behera
  • Yosuke Yamashiki
  • Kaoru Takara
  • Toshio Yamagata
Article

Abstract

Extreme stream-flow events of Citarum River are derived from the daily stream-flows at the Nanjung gauge station. Those events are identified based on their persistently extreme flows for 6 or more days during boreal fall when the seasonal mean stream-flow starts peaking-up from the lowest seasonal flows of June–August. Most of the extreme events of high-streamflows were related to La Niña conditions of tropical Pacific. A few of them were also associated with the negative phases of IOD and the newly identified El Niño Modoki. Unlike the cases of extreme high streamflows, extreme low streamflow events are seen to be associated with the positive IODs. Nevertheless, it was also found that the low-stream-flow events related to positive IOD events were also associated with El Niño events except for one independent event of 1977. Because the occurrence season coincides the peak season of IOD, not only the picked extreme events are seen to fall under the IOD seasons but also there exists a statistically significant correlation of 0.51 between the seasonal IOD index and the seasonal streamflows. There also exists a significant lag correlation when IOD of June–August season leads the streamflows of September–November. A significant but lower correlation coefficient (0.39) is also found between the seasonal streamflow and El Niño for September–November season only.

Keywords

Indian Ocean Dipole ENSO Modoki Extreme stream-flow events Citarum river Climate variability 

References

  1. Aldrian E, Susanto D (2003) Identification of three dominant rainfall regions within Indonesia and their relationship to sea surface temperature. Int J Climatol 23:1435–1452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aldrian E, Chen CA, Adi S, Prihartanto SN, Nugroho SP (2008) Spatial and seasonal dynamics of riverine carbon fluxes of the Brantas catchment in East Java J Geophys Res Biogeosci 113, G03029. doi:10.1029/2007JG000626
  3. Apip, Takara K, Yamashiki Y, Sassa K, Ibrahim AB, Fukuoka H (2010) A distributed hydrological—geotechnical model using satellite-derived rainfall estimates for shallow landslide prediction system at a catchment scale. Landslides 7:237–258. doi:10.1007/s10346-010-0214-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ashok K, Yamagata T (2009) Climate change: the El Niño with a difference. Nature 461:481–484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ashok K, Behera SK, Rao SA, Weng H, Yamagata T (2007) El Niño Modoki and its possible teleconnection. JGR-Ocean. doi:10.1029/2006JC003798
  6. Asian Development Bank (ADB), Technical Assistance Consultant’s Report (2007) Indonesia: integrated Citarum water resources management project for directorate general of Water Resources Ministry of Public Works, project number: 37049, IndonesiaGoogle Scholar
  7. Behera SK, Yamagata T (2003) Influence of the Indian Ocean dipole on the Southern Oscillation. J Met Soc Japan 81(1):169–177. doi:10.2151/jmsj.81.169 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Behera SK, Krishnan S, Yamagata T (1999) Unusual ocean-atmosphere conditions in the tropical Indian Ocean during 1994. Geophys Res Lett 26:3001–3004. doi:10.1029/1999GL010434 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bjerknes J (1969) Atmospheric teleconnections from the equatorial Pacific. Mon Wea Rev 97:163–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. D’Arrigo R, Abram N, Ummenhofer C, Palmer J, Mudelsee M (2009) Reconstructed streamflow for Citarum River, Java, Indonesia: linkages to tropical climate dynamics. Clim Dyn. doi:10.1007/s00382-009-0717-2
  11. Fares YR, Yudianto D (2004) Hydrological modelling of the upper Citarum catchment, West Java J Environ Hydrol 12: Paper 8Google Scholar
  12. Hendon HH (2003) Indonesian rainfall variability: impacts of ENSO and local air–sea interaction. J Climate 16:1775–1790CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kalnay E et al (1996) The NCEP/NCAR 40 year reanalysis project. Bull Am Meteor Soc 77:437–471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Liebmann B, Smith CA (1996) Description of a complete (Interpolated) outgoing longwave radiation dataset. Bull Amer Meteor Soc 77:1275–1277Google Scholar
  15. Luo JJ, Zhang R, Behera SK, Masumoto Y, Jin FF, Lukas R, Yamagata T (2010) Interaction between El Niño and extreme Indian ocean dipole. J Climate 23(3):726–742. doi:10.1175/2009JCL13104.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Mashudi MR (2001) Forecasting water demand using back propagation networks in the operation of reservoirs in the Citarum cascade, West Java, Indonesia. ASEAN J Sci Tech Dev 18: No. 2Google Scholar
  17. McGregor GR (1992) Temporal and spatial characteristics of coastal rainfall anomalies in Papua New Guinea and their relationship to the southern oscillation. Int J Climatol 12:449–468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Reynolds RW, Smith TM, Liu C, Chelton DB, Casey KS, Schlax MG (2007) Daily high‐resolution blended analyses for sea surface temperature. J Climate 20:5473–5496. doi:10.1175/2007JCLI1824.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Saji NH, Yamagata T (2003) Possible impacts of Indian ocean dipole mode events on global climate. Climate Res 25:151–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Saji NH, Goswami BN, Vinayachandran PN, Yamagata T (1999) A dipole mode in the tropical Indian Ocean. Nature 401:360–363Google Scholar
  21. Walker GT (1924) Correlations in seasonal variations of weather. I. A further study of World weather. Mem Indian Meteorol Dep 24:275–332Google Scholar
  22. Weng H, Ashok K, Behera SK, Rao SA, Yamagata T (2007) Impacts of Recent El Niño Modoki on droughts/floods in the Pacific rim during Boreal summer. Climate Dyn 29:113–129. doi:10.1007/s00382-007-0234-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Yamagata T, Behera SK, Luo JJ, Masson S, Jury MR, Rao SA (2004) Coupled ocean-atmosphere variability in the tropical Indian ocean. “Earth Climate: the Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction”. In: Wang C, Xie SP, Carton JA (eds) Geophysical Monograph 147. American Geophysical Union, Washington, pp 189–212Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Netrananda Sahu
    • 1
  • Swadhin K. Behera
    • 2
    • 4
  • Yosuke Yamashiki
    • 1
  • Kaoru Takara
    • 1
  • Toshio Yamagata
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Disaster Prevention Research Institute, Innovative Disaster Prevention Technology and Policy Research LaboratoryKyoto UniversityGokasho, Uji City, KyotoJapan
  2. 2.Research Institute for Global ChangeJAMSTECYokohama, KanagawaJapan
  3. 3.School of ScienceUniversity of TokyoBunkyo-ku, TokyoJapan
  4. 4.Application LaboratoryJAMSTECYokohamaJapan

Personalised recommendations