Climate Dynamics

, Volume 37, Issue 9–10, pp 2107–2125 | Cite as

Snow precipitation at four ice core sites in East Antarctica: provenance, seasonality and blocking factors

  • Claudio Scarchilli
  • Massimo Frezzotti
  • Paolo Michele Ruti


Snow precipitation is the primary mass input to the Antarctic ice sheet and is one of the most direct climatic indicators, with important implications for paleoclimatic reconstruction from ice cores. Provenance of precipitation and the dynamic conditions that force these precipitation events at four deep ice core sites (Dome C, Law Dome, Talos Dome, and Taylor Dome) in East Antarctica were analysed with air mass back trajectories calculated using the Lagrangian model and the mean composite data for precipitation, geopotential height and wind speed field data from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast from 1980 to 2001. On an annual basis, back trajectories showed that the Atlantic-Indian and Ross-Pacific Oceans were the main provenances of precipitation in Wilkes Land (80%) and Victoria Land (40%), respectively, whereas the greatest influence of the ice sheet was on the interior near the Vostok site (80%) and in the Southwest Ross Sea (50%), an effect that decreased towards the coast and along the Antarctic slope. Victoria Land received snowfall atypically with respect to other Antarctica areas in terms of pathway (eastern instead of western), seasonality (summer instead of winter) and velocity (old air age). Geopotential height patterns at 500 hPa at low (>10 days) and high (2–6 days) frequencies during snowfall cycles at two core sites showed large positive anomalies at low frequencies developing in the Tasman Sea-Eastern Indian Ocean at higher latitudes (60–70°S) than normal. This could be considered part of an atmospheric blocking event, with transient eddies acting to decelerate westerlies in a split region area and accelerate the flow on the flanks of the low-frequency positive anomalies.


Precipitation Surface mass balance Blocking high Southern hemisphere dynamic 



This research was carried out as part of the framework of the Project on Glaciology of the PNRA-MIUR, and was financially supported by the PNRA Consortium through a collaboration with ENEA Roma. The Talos Dome Ice core Project (TALDICE), a joint European programme, is funded by national contributions from Italy, France, Germany, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. Primary logistical support was provided by PNRA at Talos Dome. This is TALDICE publication no 10. We acknowledge the ice2sea project, funded by the European Commission’s 7th Framework Programme through grant number 226375, ice2sea manuscript number 15.


  1. Barbante C, Fischer H, Masson-Delmotte V, Waelbroeck C, Wolff EW (2010) Climate of the last million years: new insights from EPICA and other records. Quat Sc Rev 29:1–7. doi: 10.1016/jquascirev200911025 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Becagli S, Proposito M, Benassai S, Flora O, Genoni L, Gragnani R, Largiuni O, Pili SL, Severi M, Stenni B, Traversi R, Udisti R, Frezzotti M (2004) Chemical and isotopic snow variability in East Antarctica along the 2001/02 ITASE traverse. Ann Glaciol 39:473–482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Benassai S, Becagli S, Gragnani R, Magand O, Proposito M, Fattori I, Traversi R, Udisti R (2005) Sea spray deposition in Antarctic coastal and plateau areas from ITASE traverses. Ann Glaciol 41:32–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bertler N, Mayewski PA, Aristarain A, Barrett P, Becagli S, Bernardo R, Bo S, Xiao C, Curran M, Qin D, Dixon D, Ferron F, Fischer H, Frey M, Frezzotti M, Fundel F, Genthon C, Gragnani R, Hamilton G, Handley M, Hong S, Isaksson E, Kang J, Ren J, Kamiyama K, Kanamori S, Karkas E, Karlof L, Kaspari S, Kreutz K, Kurbatov A, Meyerson E, Ming Y, Zhang M, Motoyama H, Mulvaney R, Oerter H, Osterberg E, Proposito M, Pyne A, Ruth U, Simoes J, Smith B, Sneed S, Teinila K, Traufetter F, Udisti R, Virkkula A, Watanabe O, Williamson B, Winther JG, Li Y, Wolff E, Li Z, Zielinski A (2005) Snow chemistry across Antarctica. Ann Glaciol 41:167–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bromwich DH (1988) Snowfall in high southern latitudes. Rev Geophys 26:149–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bromwich DH, Wang SH, Monaghan AJ (2002) ERA-40 representation of the artic atmosphere moisture budget. Proceedings in ECMWF Workshop on Re-analysis, 5–9 November 2001. ERA-40 project report series no 3 reading, England, pp 287–298Google Scholar
  7. Bromwich DH, Fogt RL, Hodges KE, Walsh JE (2007) A tropospheric assessment of the ERA-40, NCEP, and JRA-25 global reanalyses in the polar regions. J Geophys Res 112:D10111. doi: 10.1029/2006JD007859
  8. Carrasco JF, Bromwich DH, Monaghan AJ (2003) Distribution and characteristics of mesoscale cyclones in the Antarctic: Ross Sea eastward to the Weddell Sea. Mon Wea Rev 131:289–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ciais P, Jouzel J (1994) Deuterium and oxygen 18 in precipitation: isotopic model, including mixed cloud processes. J Geophys Res 99(D8):16793–16803. doi: 10.1029/94JD00412 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cuff TJ, Cai M (1995) Interaction between the low and high-frequency transients in the southern hemisphere winter circulation. Tellus A 47:331–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. D’Andrea F, Tibaldi S, Blackburn M, Boer G, Déqué M, Dix MR, Dugas B, Ferranti L, Iwasaki T, Kitoh A, Pope V, Randall D, Roeckner E, Straus D, Stern W, van den Dool H, Williamson D (1998) Northern hemisphere atmospheric blocking as simulated by 15 atmospheric general circulation models in the period 1979–1988. Clim Dyn 14:385–407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. De Adana FJS, Colucci S (2005) Southern hemisphere blocking onsets associated with upper-tropospheric divergence anomalies. J Atmos Sci 62:1614–1625CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Delaygue G, Masson V, Jouzel J, Koster RD, Healy RJ (2000) The origin of Antarctic precipitation: a modelling approach. Tellus B 52(1):19–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dell’Aquila A, Ruti PM, Calmanti S, Lucarini V (2007) Southern hemisphere midlatitude atmospheric variability of the NCEP-NCAR and ECMWF reanalyses. J Geophys Res 112:D08106. doi: 10.1029/2006JD007376 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Delmotte M, Masson V, Jouzel J, Morgan VI (2000) A seasonal deuterium excess signal at Law Dome, coastal eastern Antarctica: a southern ocean signature. J Geophys Res 105:7187–7197. doi: 10.1029/1999JD901085 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dole RM (1986) Persistent anomalies of the extratropical Northern hemisphere wintertime circulation: structure. Mon Wea Rev 114:178–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Draxler RR (2003) Evaluation of an ensemble dispersion calculation. J Appl Meteorol 42:308–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Eisen O, Frezzotti M, Genthon C, Isaksson E, Magand O, van den Broeke M, Dixon DA, Ekaykin A, Holmlund P, Kameda T, Karlof L, Kaspari S, Lipenkov VY, Oerter H, Takahashi S, Vaughan DG (2008) Ground-based measurements of spatial and temporal variability of snow accumulation in East Antarctica. Rev Geophys 46:1–39. doi: 10.1029/2006RG000218 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Everitt BS (1993) Cluster analysis. Halsted Press, New York. ISBN 0-470-22043-0Google Scholar
  20. Frederiksen JS, Frederiksen CS (1993) Southern hemisphere storm tracks, blocking, and low-frequency anomalies in a primitive equation model. J Atmos Sci 50:3148–3163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Frezzotti M, Bitelli G, de Michelis P, Deponti A, Forieri A, Gandolfi S, Maggi V, Mancini F, Rémy F, Tabacco IE, Urbini S, Vittuari L, Zirizzotti A (2004) Geophysical survey at Talos Dome (East Antarctica): the search for a new deep-drilling site. Ann Glaciol 39:423–432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Frezzotti M, Pourchet M, Flora O, Gandolfi S, Gay M, Urbini S, Vincent C, Becagli S, Gragnani R, Proposito M, Severi M, Traversi R, Udisti R, Fily M (2005) Spatial and temporal variability of snow accumulation in East Antarctica from traverse data. J Glaciol 51:113–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Frezzotti M, Urbini S, Proposito M, Scarchilli C, Gandolfi S (2007) Spatial and temporal variability of surface mass balance near Talos Dome, East Antartica. J Geophys Res 112:F02032. doi: 10.1029/2006JF000638 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gallée H (1996) Mesoscale atmospheric circulation over the southwestern Ross Sea sector, Antarctica. J Appl Meteor 35:1129–1141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Genthon C (2002) Climate and surface mass balance of the polar ice sheets in ERA40/ERA15. ECMWF re-analysis project report series 3:299–316Google Scholar
  26. Gibson TT (1995) Atmospheric blocking in the Southern Hemisphere 1982–1992. In: Proceedings of the APOC and AMOS joint conference Lorne Australia Australian meteorological and oceanographic society 40Google Scholar
  27. Goodwin I, de Angelis M, Pook M, Young NW (2003) Snow accumulation variability in Wilkes Land, East Antarctica, and the relationship to atmospheric ridging in the 130°–170°E since 1930. J Geophys Res 108(D21):4673. doi: 10.1029/2002JD002995 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Helsen MM, van de Wal RSW, van den Broeke MR, Masson-Delmotte V, Meijer HAJ, Scheele MP, Werner M (2007) Modeling the isotopic composition of Antarctic snow using backward trajectories: Simulation of snow pit records. J Geophys Res 111:D15109. doi: 10.1029/2005JD006524 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Jouzel J, Vimeux F, Carillon N, Delaygue G, Hoffmann G, Masson-Delmotte V, Parrenin F (2003) Magnitude of the isotope-temperature scaling for interpretation of central Antarctic ice cores. J Geophys Res 108:4361. doi: 10.1029/2002JD002677 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Jouzel J, Masson-Delmotte V, Cattani O, Dreyfus G, Falourd S, Hoffmann G, Minster B, Nouet J, Barnola JM, Chappellaz J, Fischer H, Gallet JC, Johnsen S, Leuenberger M, Loulergue L, Luethi D, Oerter H, Parrenin F, Raisbeck G, Raynaud D, Schilt A, Schwander J, Selmo E, Souchez R, Spahni R, Stauffer B, Steffensen JP, Stenni B, Stocker TF, Tison JL, Werner M, Wolff EW (2007) Orbital and millennial Antarctic climate variability over the past 800, 000 years. Science 317:793–796. doi: 10.1126/science.1141038 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. King JC, Turner J (1997) Antarctic meteorology and climatology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, p 409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kottmeier C, Fay B (1998) Trajectories in the Antarctic lower troposphere. J Geophys Res 103:10947–10959CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lejenäs H (1984) Characteristics of southern hemisphere blocking as determined from a long time series of observational data. Q J Roy Meteor Soc 110:967–979Google Scholar
  34. Magand O, Frezzotti M, Pourchet M, Stenni B, Genoni L, Fily M (2004) Climate variability along latitudinal and longitudinal transects in East Antarctica. Ann Glaciol 39:351–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Marques RFC, Rao VB (1999) A diagnosis of a long-lasting blocking event over the southeast Pacific Ocean. Mon Wea Rev 127:1761–1775CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Marques RFC, Rao VB (2000) Interannual variations of blocking in the Southern hemisphere and their energetics. J Geophys Res 105:4625–4636CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Massom RA, Pook MJ, Comiso JC, Adams N, Turner J, Lachlan-Cope T, Gibson T (2004) Precipitation over the interior East Antarctic ice Sheet related to midlatitude blocking-high activity. J Climate 17:1914–1928CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Masson-Delmotte V, Delmotte M, Morgan V, Etheridge D, van Ommen T, Tartarin S, Hoffmann G (2003) Recent southern Indian ocean climate variability inferred from a Law Dome ice core: new insights for the interpretation of coastal Antarctic isotopic records. Clim Dyn 21:153–166. doi: 10.1007/s00382-003-03219 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Masson-Delmotte V, Hou S, Ekaykin A, Jouzel J, Aristarain A, Bernardo RT, Bromwich DH, Cattani O, Delmotte M, Falourd S, Frezzotti M, Gallée H, Genoni L, Isaksson E, Landais A, Helsen MM, Hoffmann G, Lopez J, Morgan V, Motoyama H, Noone D, Oerter H, Petit JR, Royer A, Uemura R, Schmidt GA, Schlosser E, Simões JC, Steig EJ, Stenni B, Stiévenard M, van den Broeke MR, van de Wal RSW, van de Berg WJ, Vimeux F, White JWC (2008) A review of Antarctic surface snow isotopic composition: observations, atmospheric circulation and isotopic modelling. J Climate 21:3359–3387. doi: 10.1175/2007JCLI2139.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. McMorrow AJ, Curran MAJ, van Ommen TD, Morgan VI, Allison I (2002) Features of meteorological events preserved in a high-resolution Law Dome (East Antarctica) snow pit. Ann Glaciol 35:463–470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Monaghan AJ, Bromwich DH, Fogt RL, Wang S, Mayewski PA, Dixon DA, Ekaykin A, Frezzotti M, Goodwin I, Isaksson E, Kaspari SD, Morgan VI, Oerter H, Van Ommen TD, Van der Veen CJ, Wen J (2006) Insignificant change in Antarctic snowfall since the international geophysical year. Science 313:827–831. doi: 10.1126/science.1128243 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Morgan VI, Wookey CW, Li J, van Ommen TD, Skinner W, Fitzpatrick MF (1997) Site information and initial results from deep ice drilling on Law Dome, Antarctica. J Glaciol 43:3–10Google Scholar
  43. Morse DL, Waddington ED, Marshall HP, Neumann TA, Steig EJ, Dibb JE, Winebrenner DP, Arthern RJ (1999) Accumulation rate measurements at Taylor Dome, East Antarctica: techniques and strategies for mass balance measurements in polar environments. Geograf Ann 81A:683–694CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Noone D, Simmonds I (2002) Annular variations in moisture transport mechanisms and the abundance of δ18O in Antarctic snow. J Geophys Res 107(24):4742. doi: 10.1029/2002JD002262 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Noone D, Turner J, Mulvaney R (1999) Atmospheric signals and characteristics of accumulation in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica. J Geophys Res 104:19191–19211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Proposito M, Becagli S, Castellano E, Flora O, Gragnani R, Stenni B, Traversi R, Udisti R, Frezzotti M (2002) Chemical and isotopic snow variability along the 1998 ITASE traverse from Terra Nova Bay to Dome C (East-Antarctica). Ann Glaciol 35:187–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Reijmer CH, Van den Broecke MR, Scheele MP (2002) Air parcel trajectories and snowfall related to five deep drilling locations in Antarctica based on the ERA-15 dataset. J Climate 15:1957–1968CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Renwick JA (1998) ENSO-related variability in the frequency of South Pacific blocking. Mon Wea Rev 144:3117–3123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Robertson AW, Mechoso CR (2003) Circulation regimes and low-frequency oscillations in the South Pacific sector. Mon Wea Rev 131:1566–1576CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Rockey CC, Braaten DA (1995) Characterization of polar cyclonic activity and relationship to observed snowfall events at McMurdo station, Antarctica. Preprints, 4th conference on polar meteorology and oceanography, Dallas, TX. Amer Meteor Soc 244–245Google Scholar
  51. Rutlland J, Fuenzalida H (1991) Synoptic aspects of the central chile rainfall associated with Southern oscillation. Int J Climatol 11:63–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Scarchilli C, Frezzotti M, Grigioni P, De Silvestri L, Agnoletto L, Dolci S (2010) Extraordinary blowing snow transport events in East Antarctica. Clim Dyn 34:1195–1206. doi: 10.1007/s00382-009-0601-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Schlosser E, Oerter H, Masson-Delmotte V, Reijmer C (2008) Atmospheric influence on the deuterium excess signal in polar firn: implications for ice-core interpretation. J Glaciol 54:117–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Sime LC, Wolff EW, Oliver KIC, Tindall JC (2009) Evidence for warmer interglacials in East Antarctic ice cores. Nature 462:342–345. doi: 10.1038/nature08564 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Simmonds I, Keay K, Lim EP (2003) Synoptic activity in the seas around Antarctica. Mon Wea Rev 131:272–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Sinclair MRA (1996) Climatology of anticyclones and blocking for the Southern hemisphere. Mon Wea Rev 124:245–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Sodemann H, Stohl A (2009) Asymmetries in the moisture origin of Antarctic precipitation. Geophys Res Lett 36:L22803. doi: 10.1029/2009GL040242 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Steig EJ, Morse DL, Waddington ED, Stuiver M, Grootes PM, Mayewski PA, Twickler MS, Whitlow SI (2000) Wisconsinan and Holocene climate history from an ice core at Taylor Dome, Western Ross Embayment, Antarctica. Geograf Ann 82:213–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Stenni B, Buiron D, Frezzotti M, Albani S, Barbante C, Bard E, Barnola JM, Baroni M, Baumgartner M, Bonazza M, Capron E, Castellano E, Chappellaz J, Delmonte B, Falourd S, Genoni L, Iacumin P, Jouzel J, Kipfstuhl S, Landais A, Lemieux-Dudon B, Maggi V, Masson-Delmotte V, Mazzola C, Minster B, Montagnat M, Mulvaney R, Narcisi B, Oerter H, Parrenin F, Petit JR, Ritz C, Scarchilli C, Schilt A, Schüpbach S, Schwander J, Selmo E, Severi M, Stocker TF, Udisti R (2010) Expression of the bipolar seesaw in Antarctic climate records during the last deglaciation. Nature Geoscience (in press). doi: 10.1038/NGEO1026
  60. Stenni B, Proposito M, Gragnani R, Flora O, Jouzel J, Falourd S, Frezzotti M (2002) Eight centuries of volcanic signal and climate change at Talos Dome (East Antarctica). J Geophys Res 107:1–14. doi: 10.1029/2000JD000317 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Stohl A, Sodemann H (2010) Characteristics of atmospheric transport into the Antarctic troposphere. J Geophys Res 115:D02305. doi: 10.1029/2009JD012536 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Stohl A, Wotawa G, Siebert P, Kromp-Kolb H (1995) Interpolation errors in wind fields as a function of spatial and temporal resolution and their impact on different types of kinematic trajectories. J Appl Meteor 34:2149–2165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Stohl A, Forster C, Frank A, Seibert P, Wotawa G (2005) Technical note: the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART version 6.2. Atmos Chem Phys 5:2461–2474CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Suzuki K, Yamanouchi T, Motoyama H (2008) Moisture transport to Syowa and Dome Fuji stations in Antarctica. J Geophys Res 113:D24114. doi: 10.1029/2008JD009794 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Thomas ER, Bracegirdle TJ (2009) Improving ice core interpretation using in situ and reanalysis data. J Geophys Res 114:D20116. doi: 10.1029/2009JD012263 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Tibaldi S, Tosi E, Navarra A, Pedulli L (1994) Northern and Southern Hemisphere seasonal variability of blocking frequency and predictability. Mon Wea Rev 122:1971–2003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Tibaldi S, Ruti P, Tosi E, Maruca M (1995) Operational predictability of winter blocking at ECMWF-an update. Ann Geophys 13:305–317Google Scholar
  68. Tietäväinen H, Vihma T (2008) Atmospheric moisture budget over Antarctica and the Southern ocean based on the ERA-40 reanalysis. Int J Climatol 28:1977–1995. doi: 10.1002/joc.1684 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Trenberth KE (1986) An assessment of the impact of transient eddies on the zonal flow during a blocking episode using localized Eliassen-Palm flux diagnostics. J Atmos Sci 43:2070–2087CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Trenberth KE (1991) Storm track in the southern hemisphere. J Atmos Sci 48:2159–2178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Trenberth KE, Mo KC (1985) Blocking in the southern hemisphere. Mon Wea Rev 113:3–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Turner J, Colwell SR, Marshall GJ, Lachlan-Cope TA, Carleton AM, Jones PD, Lagun V, Reid PA, Iagovkina S (2005) Antarctic climate change during the last 50 years. Int J Climatol 25:279–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Udisti R, Becagli S, Castellano E, Traversi R, Vermigli S, Piccardi G (1999) Sea-spray and marine biogenic seasonal contribution to snow composition at Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica. Ann Glaciol 29:77–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Uppala SM, Kållberg PW, Simmmons AJ, Andrea U, da Costa Bechtold V, Fiorino M, Gibson JK, Haseler J, Hernandez A, Kelly GA, Li X, Onogi K, Saarinen S, Sokka N, Allan RP, Andersson E, Arpe K, Balmaseda MA, Beljaars ACM, Van de Berg L, Bidlot J, Bormann N, Caires S, Chevallier F, Dethof A, Dragosavac M, Fisher M, Fuentes M, Hagemann S, Hólm E, Hoskin BJ, Isaken L, Janssen PAEM, Jenne R, McNally AP, Mahfouf J-F, Morcrette J-J, Rayner NA, Saunders RW, Simon P, Sterl A, Trenberth KE, Untch A, Vasiljevic D, Viterbo P, Woollen J (2005) The ERA-40 re-analysis. Q J Roy Meteor Soc 131:2961–3012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Urbini S, Frezzotti M, Gandolfi S, Vincent C, Scarchilli C, Vittuari L, Fily M (2008) Historical behaviour of Dome C and Talos Dome (East Antarctica) revealed by snow accumulation and ice velocity measurements. Glob Planet Change 60:576–588. doi: 10.1016/j.gloplacha.2007.08.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Van de Berg WJ, van den Broeke MR, van Meijgaard E, Reijmer CH (2006) Reassessment of the Antarctic surface mass balance using calibrated output of a regional atmospheric climate model. J Geophys Res 111:D11104. doi: 10.1029/2005JD006495 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Werner M, Heimann M, Hoffmann G (2001) Isotopic composition and origin of polar precipitation in present and glacial climate simulations. Tellus B 52:53–71. doi: 10.1034/j.1600-0889.2001.01154 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Claudio Scarchilli
    • 1
    • 2
  • Massimo Frezzotti
    • 1
  • Paolo Michele Ruti
    • 1
  1. 1.ENEARomeItaly
  2. 2.Università degli studi di TriesteTriesteItaly

Personalised recommendations