Advertisement

Climate Dynamics

, Volume 31, Issue 2–3, pp 183–194 | Cite as

Coupled North Atlantic slope water forcing on Gulf of Maine temperatures over the past millennium

  • Alan D. WanamakerJrEmail author
  • Karl J. Kreutz
  • Bernd R. Schöne
  • Neal Pettigrew
  • Harold W. Borns
  • Douglas S. Introne
  • Daniel Belknap
  • Kirk A. Maasch
  • Scott Feindel
Article

Abstract

To investigate ocean variability during the last millennium in the Western Gulf of Maine (GOM), we collected a 142-year-old living bivalve (Arctica islandica L.) in 2004, and three fossil A. islandica shells (calibrated 14CAMS = 1030 ± 78 ad; 1320 ± 45 ad; 1357 ± 40 ad) for stable isotope and growth increment analysis. A statistically significant relationship exists between modern GOM temperature records [shell isotope-derived (30 m) (r = −0.79; P < 0.007), Prince 5 (50 m) (r = −0.72; P < 0.019), Boothbay Harbor SST (r = −0.76; P < 0.011)], and Labrador Current (LC) transport data from the Eastern Newfoundland Slope during 1993–2003. In all cases, as LC transport increased, GOM water temperatures decreased the following year. Decadal trends in the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) influence GOM water temperatures in the most recent period, with water temperatures decreasing during NAO and AMO negative modes most likely linked to LC transport and Gulf Stream interaction. Mean shell-derived isotopic changes (δ18Oc) during the last 1,000 years were +0.47‰ and likely reflect a 1–2°C cooling from 1000 ad to present. Based on these results, we suggest that observed cooling in the GOM during the last millennium was due to increased transport and/or cooling of the LC, and decreased Gulf Stream influence on the GOM.

Keywords

North Atlantic Oscillation Gulf Stream Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation Slope Water Scotian Shelf 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank David Rodland and Sven Baier for their help preparing shell samples (INCREMENTS Research Group, University of Mainz), NOSAMS at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution for AMS analyses, Association of Graduate Students (University of Maine) for travel support, Lloyd Keigwin, David Lund, and Thomas Marchitto for providing proxy data for Fig. 6, and Fei Chai (University of Maine) for helpful conversations that shaped this manuscript. North Atlantic Oscillation data were provided by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) (Climate Prediction Center; available at http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/data/teledoc/nao.shtml). Portland Maine air temperatures were provided by NOAA National Climate Data Center (available at http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/climate/research/cag3/me.html). Prince 5 station data were provided by Marine Environmental Data Services (Fisheries and Ocean Division of Canada; available at http://www.meds-sdmm.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/zmp/main_zmp_e.html). We thank Thomas Marchitto and an anonymous reviewer for providing constructive criticism and suggestions that substantially improved this manuscript. This study has been made possible in part by a German Research Foundation (DFG) grant (to BRS) within the framework of the Emmy Noether Program (SCH0793/1). This research was funded through the National Science Foundation (NSF ATM-0222553).

References

  1. Baringer MO, Larsen JC (2001) Sixteen years of Florida Current transport at 27°N. Geophys Res Lett 28:3179–3182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Brown WS, Irish JD (1993) The annual variation of water mass structure in the Gulf of Maine: 1986–1987. J Mar Res 51:53–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cargnelli LM, Griesbach SJ, Packer DB, Weissberger E (1999) Essential fish habitat source document: Ocean quahog, Arctica islandica, life history and habitat characteristics. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-NE-148, p 12Google Scholar
  4. Conversi A, Piontkovski S, Hameed S (2001) Seasonal and interannual dynamics of Calanus finmarchicus in the Gulf of Maine (Northeastern US shelf) with reference to the North Atlantic Oscillation. Deep Sea Res II 48:519–530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Delworth TL, Mann ME (2000) Observed and simulated multidecadal variability in the Northern Hemisphere. Clim Dyn 16:661–676CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dickson R, Lazier J, Meincke J, Rhines P, Swift J (1996) Long-term coordinated changes in the convective activity of the North Atlantic. Prog Oceanogr 38:241–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dima M, Lohmann G (2007) A hemispheric mechanism for the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. J Clim 20:2706–2719CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Drinkwater KF, Belgrano A, Borja A, Conversi A, Edwards M, Greene CH, Ottersen G, Pershing AJ, Walker H (2003) The response of marine ecosystems to climate variability associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation. In: Hurrell J, Kushnir Y, Ottersen G, Visbeck M (eds) The North Atlantic Oscillation: climate significance and environmental impact, vol 134. AGU, Washington, pp 211–234Google Scholar
  9. Drinkwater KF, Mountain DB, Herman A (1999) Variability in the slope water properties of eastern North America and their effects on adjacent shelves. ICES CM 1999/O:08, p 26Google Scholar
  10. Enfield DB, Mestas-Nunez AM, Trimble PJ (2001) The Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation and its relation to rainfall and river flows in the continental U.S. Geophys Res Lett 28:2077–2080CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Epstein S, Buchsbaum R, Lowenstam HA, Urey HC (1953) Revised carbonate-water isotopic temperature scale. Bull Geol Soc Am 64:1315–1326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Folland CK, Palmer TN, Parker DE (1986) Sahel rainfall and worldwide sea temperatures. Nature 320:602–606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Forsythe GTW, Scourse JD, Harris I, Richardson CA, Jones P, Briffa K, Heinemeier J (2003) Towards an absolute chronology for the marine environment: the development of a 1000-year record from Arctica islandica. Geophysical Research Abstracts, Eur Geophys Soc 5Google Scholar
  14. Gatien MG (1976) A study in the slope water region south of Halifax. J Fish Res Board Can 33:2213–2217Google Scholar
  15. Goldenberg SB, Lansea CW, Mestas-Nunez AM, Gray WM (2001) The recent increase in Atlantic hurricane activity: causes and implications. Science 293:474–479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Greene CH, Pershing AJ (2003) The flip-side of the North Atlantic Oscillation and modal shifts in slope-water circulation patterns. Limnol Oceanogr 48:319–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Grossman EL, Ku TL (1986) Oxygen and carbon isotope fractionation in biogenic aragonite: Temperature effects. Chem Geol 59:59–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Han G, Li J (2004) Sea surface height and current variability on the Newfoundland slope from TOPEX/Poseidon Altimetry, Can. Tech. Rep. Hydrogr Ocean Sci 234 viiiGoogle Scholar
  19. Houghton RW, Fairbanks RG (2001) Water sources for Georges Bank. Deep Sea Res II 48:95–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hurrell JW (1995) Decadal trends in the North Atlantic Oscillation: regional temperatures and precipitation. Science 269:676–679CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Jones DS (1983) Sclerochronology: reading the record of the molluscan shell. Am Sci 71:384–391Google Scholar
  22. Keen MJ, Piper DJW (1990) Geological and historical perspective. In: Keen MJ, Williams GL (eds) Geology of the continental margin of eastern Canada, Vol I-1. Canadian Government Publishing Centre, Ottawa, pp 5–30Google Scholar
  23. Keigwin LD (1996) The little ice age and medieval warm period in the Sargasso Sea. Science 274:1503–1508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Keigwin LD, Sachs JP, Rosenthal Y (2003) A 1600-year history of the Labrador current of Nova Scotia. Clim Dyn 21:53–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Keigwin LD, Sachs JP, Rosenthal Y, Boyle EA (2005) The 8200 year B.P. event in the slope water system, western subpolar North Atlantic. Paleoceanography 20:doi: 10.1029/2004PA001074
  26. Knight JR, Allan RJ, Folland CK, Vellinga M, Mann ME (2005) A signature of persistent natural thermohaline circulation cycles in observed climate. Geophys Res Lett 32:doi: 10.1029/2005GL024233
  27. Knight JR, Folland CK, Scaife A (2006) Climate impacts of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. Geophys Res Lett 33, L17706, doi: 1029/2006GL026242
  28. Larsen JC (1992) Transport and heat flux of the Florida current at 27°N derived from cross-stream voltages and profiling data: theory and observations. Philos Trans R Soc Lond A 338:169–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lazier JRN, Wright DG (1993) Annual velocity variations in the Labrador Current. J Phys Oceanogr 23:659–678CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lazzari M (2001) Monthly and annual means of sea surface temperature: Boothbay Harbor, Maine 1905–2004Google Scholar
  31. Leaman KD, Vertes PS, Atkinson LP, Lee TN, Hamilton P, Waddell E (1995) Transport, potential vorticity, and current/temperature structure across Northwest Providence and Santaren Channels and the Florida Current off Cay Sal Bank. J Geophys Res 100:8561–8569CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Loder JW, Shore JA, Hannah CG, Petrie BD (2001) Decadal-scale hydrographic and circulation variability in the Scotia-Maine region. Deep Sea Res II 48:3–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lund DC, Curry W (2006) Florida Current surface temperature and salinity variability during the last millennium. Paleoceanography 21:doi:  10.1029/2005PA001218
  34. Lund DC, Lynch-Stieglitz J, Curry WB (2006) Gulf Stream density structure and transport during the past millennium. Nature 444:601–604CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Marchitto TM, deMenocal P (2003) Late Holocene variability of upper North Atlantic deep water temperature and salinity. Geochem Geophys Geosyst 4(12):1. doi: 10.1029/2003GC000598 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Marsh R, Petrie B, Weidman CR, Dickson RR, Loder JW, Hannah CG, Frank K, Drinkwater K (1999) The 1882 tilefish kill––a cold event in shelf waters off the north-eastern United States? Fish Oceanogr 8:39–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. MERCINA (2001) Oceanographic responses to climate in the Northwest Atlantic. Oceanography 14:76–82Google Scholar
  38. Myers RA, Helbig J, Holland D (1989) Seasonal and interannual variability of the Labrador Current and West Greenland Current. ICES CM 16:18ppGoogle Scholar
  39. Petrie B, Drinkwater K (1993) Temperature and salinity variability on the Scotian Shelf and in the Gulf of Maine. J Geophys Res 98:20,079–20,090CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Petrie B, Yeats P (2000) Annual and interannual variability of nutrients and their estimated fluxes in the Scotian Shelf- Gulf of Maine region. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 57:2536–2546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Pettigrew NR, Townsend DW, Xue H, Wallinga JP, Brickley PJ, Hetland RD (1998) Observations of the Eastern Maine Coastal Current and its offshore extensions in 1994. J Geophys Res 103(30):623–639Google Scholar
  42. Ropes JW, Jones DS, Murawski SA, Serchuck FM, Jearld A (1984) Documentation of annual growth lines in ocean quahogs, Arctica islandica Linne. Fish Bull 82:1–19Google Scholar
  43. Ropes JW, Muraski SA (1983) Maximum shell length and longevity in ocean Quahogs, A. islandica Linné. ICES CM K 32:1–8Google Scholar
  44. Sachs JP (2007) Cooling of Northwest Atlantic slope waters during the Holocene. Geophys Res Lett 34:L03609. doi: 03610.01029/02006GL028495 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Schöne BR, Freyre Castro AD, Fiebig J, Houk SD, Oschmann W, Kröncke I (2004) Sea surface water temperatures over the period 1884–1983 reconstructed from oxygen isotope ratios of a bivalve mollusk shell (Arctica islandica, southern North Sea). Palaeogeogr Palaeclimatol Palaeoecol 212:215–232Google Scholar
  46. Schöne BR, Fiebig J, Pfeiffer M, Gleβ R, Hickson J, Johnson A, Dreyer W, Oschmann W (2005a) Climate records from a bivalve Methuselah (Arctica islandica, Mollusca; Iceland). Palaeogeogr Palaeclimatol Palaeoecol 228:130–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Schöne BR, Houk S, Freyre Castro AD, Fiebig J, Oschmann W, Kröncke I, Dreyer W, Gosselck F (2005b) Daily growth rates in shells of Arctica islandica: assessing sub-seasonal environmental controls on a long-lived bivalve mollusk. Palaios 20:78–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Schöne BR, Pfeiffer M, Pohlmann T, Siegismund F (2005c) A seasonally resolved bottom-water temperature record for the period ad 1866–2002 based on shells of Arctica islandica (Mollusca, North Sea). Int J Clim 25:947–962CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Smith PC (1983) The mean and seasonal circulation off southwest Nova Scotia. J Phys Oceanogr 13:1034–1054CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Stuiver M, Reimer PJ (1993) Extended 14C data base and revised CALIB 3.0 14C Age calibration program. Radiocarbon 35:215–230Google Scholar
  51. Sutton RT, Hodson DLR (2003) Influence of the ocean on North Atlantic climate variability 1871–1999. J Clim 16:3296–3313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Sutton RT, Hodson DLR (2005) Atlantic Ocean forcing of North American and European summer climate. Science 309:115–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Tanaka N, Monaghan MC, Turekian KW (1990) Δ14C balance for the Gulf of Maine, Long Island Sound and the northern Middle Atlantic Bight: evidence for the extent of Antarctic intermediate water contribution. J Mar Res 48:75–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Taylor AH, Stephens JA (1998) The North Atlantic Oscillation and the latitude of the Gulf Stream. Tellus 50:134–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Thompson I, Jones DS, Dreibelbis D (1980) Annual internal growth banding and life history of the ocean quahog Arctica islandica (Mollusca: Bivalvia). Mar Biol 57:25–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Weidman C, Jones GA, Lohmann KC (1994) The long-lived mollusk Arctica islandica: a new paleoceanographic tool for the reconstruction of bottom temperatures for the continental shelves of northern Atlantic Ocean. J Geophys Res 99:318,305–318,314Google Scholar
  57. Weidman CR, Jones GA (1993) A shell-derived time history of bomb 14C on Georges Bank and its Labrador Sea implications. J Geophys Res 98:514,577–514,588CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alan D. WanamakerJr
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Karl J. Kreutz
    • 1
  • Bernd R. Schöne
    • 3
  • Neal Pettigrew
    • 4
  • Harold W. Borns
    • 1
  • Douglas S. Introne
    • 1
  • Daniel Belknap
    • 1
  • Kirk A. Maasch
    • 1
  • Scott Feindel
    • 5
  1. 1.Climate Change Institute and Department of Earth SciencesUniversity of MaineOronoUSA
  2. 2.School of Ocean SciencesUniversity of Wales at BangorAngleseyUK
  3. 3.Increments Research Group, Department of Paleontology, Institute of GeosciencesUniversity of MainzMainzGermany
  4. 4.School of Marine SciencesUniversity of MaineOronoUSA
  5. 5.Darling Marine CenterUniversity of MaineWalpoleUSA

Personalised recommendations