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Climate Dynamics

, Volume 30, Issue 2–3, pp 225–238 | Cite as

Investigating lower stratospheric model transport: Lagrangian calculations of mean age and age spectra in the GCM ECHAM4

  • Christian Reithmeier
  • Robert SausenEmail author
  • Volker Grewe
Article

Abstract

The Lagrangian scheme ATTILA is used to calculate age spectra and the mean age of air in the general circulation model ECHAM4. The advantage of the Lagrangian method is that temporal variation in transport is taken into account and that beyond transport times the actual transport pathways can be investigated. We found a strong seasonal cycle in mean age and age spectra, especially at high latitudes. When plotting polar age spectra against time, it can clearly be seen that the edge of the polar vortex acts as an efficient transport barrier and that exchange with extra-polar air takes place only for a short period of approximately two months after the polar vortex has broken down. Compared to observations the mean age is reproduced satisfactorily below approximately 20 km. Above that level however, the mean age is underestimated, especially at high latitudes. Furthermore, the observed sharp meridional gradient is located too far polewards in the model, which indicates that the subtropical transport barrier is too weak. There is a distinct variation in the shape of the age spectra with latitude. At low latitudes the age spectra consist of one single peak, whereas at higher latitudes secondary peaks appear, which are one year apart and whose positions in the spectrum are independent of the location. At polar latitudes there are even several peaks of approximately equal size. We explain these peaks with two superposing processes. First, the seasonal cycle of the upward mass flux at the tropical tropopause produces a single peak age distribution. And second, at polar latitudes, the temporal evolution of the polar vortex allows mixing of polar and subtropical air only once a year, which results in a superposition of these single peak age distributions. A final investigation of the transport pathways gave indications for predominant routes from the tropics to high latitudes resulting in altitude dependent meridional transport, however, more detailed studies of 3D trajectory data will be needed to clarify this issue.

Keywords

Seasonal Cycle Polar Vortex Polar Latitude Tropical Tropopause Inert Tracer 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authos thank Dr. C. Johnson (UK Met. Office) for generously providing the STOCHEM code, which facilitated the development of ATTILA considerably and two anonymous reviewer for fruitful comments. This work was supported by the AFS project of the German Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (project 07 AF 311 /3).

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christian Reithmeier
    • 1
    • 2
  • Robert Sausen
    • 1
    Email author
  • Volker Grewe
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut für Physik der AtmosphäreDeutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) e.V.WesslingGermany
  2. 2.BMW GroupMünchenGermany

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