Advertisement

Climate Dynamics

, Volume 26, Issue 2–3, pp 273–284 | Cite as

The glacial inception as recorded in the NorthGRIP Greenland ice core: timing, structure and associated abrupt temperature changes

  • Amaelle Landais
  • Valérie Masson-Delmotte
  • Jean Jouzel
  • Dominique Raynaud
  • Sigfus Johnsen
  • Christof Huber
  • Markus Leuenberger
  • Jakob Schwander
  • Bénédicte Minster
Article

Abstract

The mechanisms involved in the glacial inception are still poorly constrained due to a lack of high resolution and cross-dated climate records at various locations. Using air isotopic measurements in the recently drilled NorthGRIP ice core, we show that no evidence exists for stratigraphic disturbance of the climate record of the last glacial inception (∼123–100 kyears BP) encompassing Dansgaard–Oeschger events (DO) 25, 24 and 23, even if we lack sufficient resolution to completely rule out disturbance over DO 25. We quantify the rapid surface temperature variability over DO 23 and 24 with associated warmings of 10±2.5 and 16±2.5°C, amplitudes which mimic those observed in full glacial conditions. We use records of δ18O of O2 to propose a common timescale for the NorthGRIP and the Antarctic Vostok ice cores, with a maximum uncertainty of 2,500 years, and to examine the interhemispheric sequence of events over this period. After a synchronous North–South temperature decrease, the onset of rapid events is triggered in the North through DO 25. As for later events, DO 24 and 23 have a clear Antarctic counterpart which does not seem to be the case for the very first abrupt warming (DO 25). This information, when added to intermediate levels of CO2 and to the absence of clear ice rafting associated with DO 25, highlights the uniqueness of this first event, while DO 24 and 23 appear similar to typical full glacial DO events.

Keywords

Glacial Period Warm Phase Glacial Inception Gravitational Signal Marine Core 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the EC within the POP project (EVK2-2000-22067), the CEA, the French CNRS, the Balzan foundation and the IPEV. It is a contribution to the North Greenland Ice Core Project (NGRIP) organized by the ESF. The comments of the reviewers strongly helped to improve the manuscript. We appreciated fruitful discussions with J. Chappellaz and J.-M. Barnola. We thank G.B. Dreyfus and H. Blatt for their help on the manuscript and all NorthGRIP participants for their cooperative effort.

References

  1. Adkins JF, Boyle EA, Keigwin L, Cortijo E (1997) Variability of the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation during the last interglacial period. Nature 390:154–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alley RB, Brook EJ, Anandakrishnan S (2002) A northern lead in the orbital band: north–south phasing of Ice-Age events. Q Sci Rev 21:431–441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barnola JM, Raynaud D, Korotkevich YS, Lorius C (1987) Vostok ice core provides 160,000-year record of atmospheric CO2. Nature 329:408–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bender M, Sowers T, Labeyrie LD (1994) The Dole effect and its variation during the last 130,000 years as measured in the Vostok core. Glob Biog Cycles 8(3):363–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bender M, Malaize B, Orchado J, Sowers T, Jouzel J (1999) High precision correlations of Greenland and Antarctic ice core records over the last 100 kyr. In: AGU (eds) Mechanisms of global climate change at millennial time scales. Geophysical Monograph series, pp 149–164Google Scholar
  6. Berger A, Gallée H, Li XS, Dutrieux A, Loutre MF (1996) Ice-sheet growth and high-latitudes sea-surface temperature. Climate Dynam 12:441–448Google Scholar
  7. Blunier T, Brook EJ (2001) Timing of Millennial-scale climate change in Antarctica and Greenland during the last glacial period. Science 291(5501):109–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Blunier T, Chappellaz J, Schwander J, Dallenbach A, Stauffer B, Stocker T, Raynaud D, Jouzel J, Clausen HB, Hammer CU, Johnsen SJ (1998) Asynchrony of Antarctic and Greenland climate change during the last glacial period. Nature 394:739–743CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bond G, Broecker W, Johnsen S, Mc Manus J, Labeyrie L, Jouzel J, Bonani G (1993) Correlations between climate records from North Atlantic sediments and Greenland ice. Nature 365:143–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Boyle EA (1997) Cool tropical temperatures shift the global d18O–T relationship: an explanation for the ice core δ18O-borehole thermometry conflict. Geophys Res Lett 24:273–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Broecker WS (1998) Paleocean circulation during the last deglaciation: a bipolar seesaw? Paleoceanography 13:119–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Caillon N, Severinghaus J, Barnola JM, Chappellaz J, Jouzel J, Parrenin F (2001) Estimation of temperature change and gas age–ice age difference, 108 Kyr BP, at Vostok, Antarctica. J Geophys Res 106(D23):31893–31901CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Caillon N, Jouzel J, Severinghaus JP, Chappellaz J, Blunier T (2003a) A novel method to study the phase relationship between Antarctic and Greenland climates. Geophys Res Lett 30(17). DOI: 10.1029/2003GL017838Google Scholar
  14. Caillon N, Severinghaus JP, Jouzel J, Barnola J-M, Kang J, Lipenkov VY (2003b) Timing of Atmospheric CO2 and Antarctic temperature changes across termination III. Science 299:1728–1731CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chapman MR, Shackleton NJ (1999) Global ice-volume fluctuation, North Atlantic ice-rafting events, and deep-ocean circulation changes between 130 and 70 ka. Geology 27:795–798CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chappellaz J, Blunier T et al (1993) Synchronous changes in atmospheric CH4 and Greenland climate between 40 and 8 kyr BP. Nature 366:443–445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chappellaz J, Brook E, Blunier T, Malaizé B (1997) CH4 and δ18O of O2 records from Greenland ice: a clue for stratigraphic disturbance in the bottom part of the Greenland Ice Core Project and the Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 ice-cores. J Geophys Res 102(C12):26547–26557CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cortijo E, Duplessy JC, Labeyrie L, Leclaire H, Duprat J, van Weering T (1994) Eemian cooling in the Norwegian Sea and North Atlantic ocean preceding continental ice-sheet growth. Nature 372:446–449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cortijo E, Lehman S, Keigwin L, Chapman M, Paillard D, Labeyrie L (1999) Changes in meridional temperature and salinity gradients in the North Atlantic Ocean (30°–72°N) during the last interglacial period. Paleoceanography 14(1):23–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cuffey KM, Vimeux F (2001) Covariation of carbon dioxide and temperature from the Vostok ice core after deuterium-excess correction. Nature 412:523–527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dahl-Jensen D, Mosegaard K, Gunderstrup GD, Clow GD, Johnsen SJ, Hansen AW, Balling N (1998) Past temperatures directly from the Greenland ice sheet. Science 282:268–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dansgaard W (1964) Stable isotopes in precipitation. Tellus 16:436–468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dansgaard W, Johnsen S, Clausen HB, Dahl-Jensen D, Gundestrup N, Hammer CU, Oeschger H (1984) North Atlantic climatic oscillations revealed by deep Greenland ice cores. In: Hansen JE, Takahashi T (eds) Climate processes and climate sensitivity. Am Geophys Union, pp 288–298Google Scholar
  24. Dansgaard W, Johnsen SJ, Clausen HB, Dahl-Jensen D, Gunderstrup NS, Hammer CU, Steffensen JP, Sveinbjornsdottir A, Jouzel J, Bond G (1993) Evidence for general instability of past climate from a 250-kyr ice-core record. Nature 364:218–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Fawcett PJ, Agutsdottir AM, Alley RB, Shuman CA (1997) The Younger Dryas termination and North Atlantic deepwater formation: insights from climate model simulations and Greenland ice core data. Paleoceanography 12(1):23–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fuchs A, Leuenberger MC (1996) δ18O of atmospheric oxygen measured on the GRIP ice core document stratigraphic disturbances in the lowest 10% of the core. Geophys Res Lett 23(9):1049–1052CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ganopolski A, Rahmstorf S (2001) Rapid changes of glacial climate simulated in a coupled climate model. Nature 409:153–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Genty D, Blamart D, Ouahdi R, Gilmour M, Baker A, Jouzel J, Van-Exter S (2003) Precise timing of Dansgaard–Oeschger climate oscillations in western Europe from stalagmite data. Nature 421:833–837CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Goujon C, Barnola J-M, Ritz C (2003) Modeling the densification of polar firn including heat diffusion: application to close-off characteristics and gas isotopic fractionation for Antarctica and Greenland sites. J Geophys Res 108(D24). DOI: 10.1029/2002JD003319Google Scholar
  30. Grachev AM, Severinghaus JP (2003a) Determining the thermal diffusion factor for 40Ar/36Ar in air to aid paleoreconstruction of abrupt climate change. J Phys Chem 107(A2003):4636–4642Google Scholar
  31. Grachev AM, Severinghaus JP (2003b) Laboratory determination of thermal diffusion constants for 29N2/28N2 in air at temperature from −60 to 0°C for reconstruction of magnitudes of abrupt climatic changes using the ice core fossil-air paleothermometer. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 67(3):345–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Grootes PM, Stuiver M, White JWC, Johnsen SJ, Jouzel J (1993) Comparison of the oxygen isotope records from the GISP2 and GRIP Greenland ice cores. Nature 366:552–554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Jouzel J, Masson-Delmotte V, Stiévenard M, Landais A, Vimeux F, Johnsen SJ, Sveinbjornsdottir AEI, White JWC (2005) Rapid deuterium-excess changes in Greenland ice cores: a link between the ocean and the atmosphere. Comptes-Rendus à l’Académie des Sciences, in pressGoogle Scholar
  34. Kageyama M, Charbit S, Ritz C, Khodri M, Ramstein G (2004) Quantifying ice-sheet feedbacks during the last glacial inception. Geophys Res Lett 31:DOI. 10.1029/2004GL021339Google Scholar
  35. Khodri M, Leclainche Y, Ramstein G, Braconnot P, Marti O, Cortijo E (2001) Simulating the amplification of orbital forcing by ocean feedbacks in the last glaciation. Nature 410(6828):570–574CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Khodri M, Ramstein G, Paillard D, Duplessy JC, Kageyama M, Ganopolski A (2003) Modelling the climate evolution from the last interglacial to the start of the last glaciation: the role of Arctic Ocean freshwater budget. Geophys Res Lett 30(12). DOI: 10.1029/2003GL017108Google Scholar
  37. Krinner G, Genthon C, Jouzel J (1997) GCM analysis of local influences on ice core d signals. Geophys Res Lett 24(22):2825–2828CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kukla GJ, Bender M, Beaulieu de J-L, Bond G, Broecker WS, Cleveringa P, Gavin JE, Herbert TD, Imbrie J, Jouzel J, Keigwin LD, Knudsen K-L, Mc Manus JF, Merkt J, Muhs J, Muller H (2002) Last interglacial climates. Quaternary Res 58:2–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Landais A, Chappellaz J, Delmotte MJ, Jouzel J, Blunier T, Bourg C, Caillon C, Cherrier S, Malaizé B, Masson-Delmotte V, Raynaud D, Schwander J, Steffensen JP (2003) A tentative reconstruction of the last interglacial and glacial inception in Greenland based on new gas measurements in the Greenland Ice Core Project (GRIP) ice core. J Geophys Res 108(D18). DOI: 10.1029/2002JD003147Google Scholar
  40. Landais A, Steffensen JP, Caillon N, Jouzel J, Masson-Delmotte V, Schwander J (2004a) Evidence for stratigraphic distortion in the Greenland Ice Core Project (GRIP) ice core during Event 5e1 (120 kyr BP) from gas isotopes: J Geophys Res 109: doi 10.1029/2003JD004193Google Scholar
  41. Landais A, Caillon N, Jouzel J, Chappellaz J, Grachev A, Goujon C, Barnola JM, Leuenberger M (2004b) A method for precise quantification of temperature change and phasing between temperature and methane increases through gas measurements on Dansgaard–Oeschger event 12 (−45 kyr). Earth Planet Sci Lett 225:221–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Landais A, Barnola J-M, Masson-Delmotte V, Jouzel J, Chappellaz J, Caillon N, Huber C, Leuenberger M, Johnsen S (2004c) A continuous record of temperature evolution over a whole sequence of Dansgaard–Oeschger during Marine Isotopic Stage 4 (76 to 62 kyr BP). Geophys Res Let 31: DOI 10.1029/2004GL021193Google Scholar
  43. Lang C, Leuenberger M, Schwander J, Johnsen S (1999) 16°C rapid temperature variation in central Greenland 70,000 years ago. Science 286(5441):934–937CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Leuenberger M (1997) Modeling the signal transfer of seawater δ18O to the δ18O of atmospheric oxygen using a diagnostic box model for the terrestrial and marine biosphere. J Geophys Res 102(C12):26841–26850CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Martinson DG, Pisias NG, Hays JD, Imbrie J, Moore TC, Shackleton NJ (1987) Age dating and the orbital theory of the ice ages: development of a high-resolution 0–300,000 years chronostratigraphy. Quaternary Res 27:1–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Masson-Delmotte V, Jouzel J, Landais A, Stievenard M, Johnsen S, White JWC, Werner M, Sveinbjornsdottir A, Fuhrer K (2005a) Rapid and slow reorganisation of the Northern Hemisphere hydrological cycle during the last glacial period as derived from the GRIP ice core deuterium-excess record. Science 309:118–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Masson-Delmotte V, Landais A, Stievenard M, Cattani O, Falourd S, Johnsen SJ, Jouzel J, Dahl-Jensen D, Sveinsbjornsdottir A, White JCW, Popp T, Fischer H (2005b) Greenland Holocene deuterium excess record: different moisture origins at GRIP and NorthGRIP? J Geophys Res 110: DOI 10.1029/2004JD005575Google Scholar
  48. Mc Manus JF, Bond GC, Broecker WS, Johnsen SJ, Labeyrie L, Higgins S (1994) High-resolution climatic records from the N. Atlantic during the last interglacial. Nature 371:326–329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Mc Manus JF, Oppo DW, Keigwin LD, Cullen JL, Bond GC (2002) Thermohaline circulation and prolonged interglacial warmth in the North Atlantic. Quaternary Res 58:17–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Monnin E, Indermuhle A, Dallenbach A, Flueckiger J, Stauffer B, Stocker TF, Raynaud D, Barnola J-M (2001) Atmospheric CO2 concentrations over the last glacial termination. Science 291:112–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. NorthGRIP community members (2004) High resolution climate record of the northern hemisphere back to the last interglacial period. Nature 431:147–151Google Scholar
  52. Oerlemans J (2001) Glaciers and Climate Change. Balkema Publishers, Amsterdam. ISBN: 9026518137Google Scholar
  53. Parrenin F, Remy F, Ritz C, Siegert MJ, Jouzel J (2004) New modelling of the Vostok ice flow line and implication for the glaciological chronology of the Vostok ice core. J Geophys Res 109: DOI: 10.1029/2004JD004561Google Scholar
  54. Pépin L, Raynaud D, Barnola J-M, Loutre MF (2001) Hemispheric roles of climate forcings during glacial–interglacial transitions as deduced from the Vostok record and LLN-2Dmodel experiments. J Geophys Res 106(D23):31,885–31,892CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Petit JR, Jouzel J, Raynaud D, Barkov NI, Barnola JM, Basile I, Bender M, Chappellaz J, Davis M, Delaygue G, Delmotte M, Kotlyakov VM, Lorius C, Pepin L, Ritz C, Saltzman E, Stievenard M (1999) Climate and atmospheric history of the past 420,000 years from the Vostok ice core, Antarctica. Nature 399:429–436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Reille M, Andrieu V, Beaulieu JLd, Guenet P, Goeury C (1998) A long pollen record from Lac du Bouchet, Massif Central, France, for the period ca 325 to 100 ka BP (OIS 9c to OIS 5e). Quaternary Sci Rev 17:1107–1123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Rioual P, Andrieu-Ponel V, Rietti-Shati M, Battarbee RW, de Beaulieu J-L, Cheddadi R, Reille M, Svobodove H, and Shemesh A (2001) High-resolution record of climate stability in France during the last interglacial period. Nature 413:293–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Ruddiman WF, McIntyre A (1979) Warmth of the Subpolar North Atlantic Ocean during northern hemisphere ice-sheet growth. Science 204:173–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Sanchez-Goñi MF, Eynaud F, Turon J-L, Shackelton NJ (1999) High resolution palynological record off the Iberian margin: direct land-sea correlation for the Last Interglacial complex. Earth Planet Sci Lett 171:123–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Severinghaus J, Sowers T, Brook E, Alley R, Bender M (1998) Timing of abrupt climate change at the end of the Younger Dryas interval from thermally fractionated gases in polar ice. Nature 391:141–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Severinghaus JP, Brook J (1999) Abrupt climate change at the end of the last glacial period inferred from trapped air in polar ice. Science 286(5441):930–934CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Severinghaus JP, Grachev A, Battle M (2001) Thermal fractionation of air in polar firn by seasonal temperature gradients. G3: Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 2: Paper number 2000GC000146Google Scholar
  63. Severinghaus JP, Gratchev A, Luz B, Caillon N (2003) A method for precise measurement of argon 40/36 and krypton/argon ratios in trapped air in polar ice with application to past firn thickness and abrupt climate change in Greenland and at Siple Dome, Antarctica. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 67(3):325–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Shackleton NJ (1987) Oxygen isotopes, ice volume and sea level. Quaternary Sci Rev 6:183–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Shackelton NJ, Chapman M, Sanchez-Goñi MF, Paillard D, Lancelot Y (2002) The classic marine isotope substage 5e. Quaternary Res 58:14–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Sowers T, Bender M, Raynaud D, Korotkevich YS, Orchado J (1991) The δ18O of atmospheric O2 from air inclusions in the Vostok ice core: timing of CO2 and ice volume change during the penultimate deglaciation. Paleoceanography 6(6):669–696CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Sowers T, Bender M, Labeyrie LD, Jouzel J, Raynaud D, Martinson D, Korotkevich YS (1993) 135 000 year Vostok—SPECMAP common temporal framework. Paleoceanography 8(6):737–766CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Stocker TF, Johnsen SJ (2003) A minimum model for the bipolar seesaw. Paleoceanography 18 (4): 1087. DOI 10.1029/2003PA000920Google Scholar
  69. Waelbroeck C, Labeyrie L, Michel E, Duplessy J-C, Mc Manus JF, Lambeck K, Balbon E, Labracherie M (2002) Sea level and deep temperature changes derived from benthic foraminifera benthic records. Quaternary Sci Rev 21:295–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Wang Z, Mysak LA (2002) Simulation of the last glacial inception and rapid ice sheet growth in the McGill Paleoclimate Model. Geophys Res Let 29: DOI: 10.1029/2002GL015120Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amaelle Landais
    • 1
    • 5
  • Valérie Masson-Delmotte
    • 1
  • Jean Jouzel
    • 1
  • Dominique Raynaud
    • 2
  • Sigfus Johnsen
    • 3
  • Christof Huber
    • 4
  • Markus Leuenberger
    • 4
  • Jakob Schwander
    • 4
  • Bénédicte Minster
    • 1
  1. 1.IPSL/Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l’EnvironnementUMR CEA-CNRS, CEA SaclayGif-sur -YvetteFrance
  2. 2.LGGE, UMR CNRS-UJFSt Martin d’HeresFrance
  3. 3.Department of GeophysicsUniversity of CopenhagenCopenhagenDenmark
  4. 4.Physics InstituteUniversity of BernBernSwitzerland
  5. 5.Institute of Earth SciencesHebrew UniversityJerusalemIsrael

Personalised recommendations