Advertisement

Climate Dynamics

, Volume 23, Issue 3–4, pp 279–302 | Cite as

Evaluating the influence of different vegetation biomes on the global climate

  • P. K. SnyderEmail author
  • C. Delire
  • J. A. Foley
Article

Abstract

The participation of different vegetation types within the physical climate system is investigated using a coupled atmosphere-biosphere model, CCM3-IBIS. We analyze the effects that six different vegetation biomes (tropical, boreal, and temperate forests, savanna, grassland and steppe, and shrubland/tundra) have on the climate through their role in modulating the biophysical exchanges of energy, water, and momentum between the land-surface and the atmosphere. Using CCM3-IBIS we completely remove the vegetation cover of a particular biome and compare it to a control simulation where the biome is present, thereby isolating the climatic effects of each biome. Results from the tropical and boreal forest removal simulations are in agreement with previous studies while the other simulations provide new evidence as to their contribution in forcing the climate. Removal of the temperate forest vegetation exhibits behavior characteristic of both the tropical and boreal simulations with cooling during winter and spring due to an increase in the surface albedo and warming during the summer caused by a reduction in latent cooling. Removal of the savanna vegetation exhibits behavior much like the tropical forest simulation while removal of the grassland and steppe vegetation has the largest effect over the central United States with warming and drying of the atmosphere in summer. The largest climatic effect of shrubland and tundra vegetation removal occurs in DJF in Australia and central Siberia and is due to reduced latent cooling and enhanced cold air advection, respectively. Our results show that removal of the boreal forest yields the largest temperature signal globally when either including or excluding the areas of forest removal. Globally, precipitation is most affected by removal of the savanna vegetation when including the areas of vegetation removal, while removal of the tropical forest most influences the global precipitation excluding the areas of vegetation removal.

Keywords

Boreal Forest Latent Heat Flux Surface Albedo Vegetation Removal Savanna Vegetation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Amthor JS (1984) The role of maintenance respiration in plant growth. Plant, Cell Environment 7: 561–569Google Scholar
  2. Baidya Roy S, Avissar R (2002) Impact of land use/land cover change on regional hydrometeorology in Amazonia. J Geophys Res-Atmos 107(D20): LBA 4: 1–12Google Scholar
  3. Bonan GB (1997) Effects of land use on the climate of the United States. Clim Change 37: 449–486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bonan GB (1999) Frost followed the plow: Impacts of deforestation on the climate of the United States. Ecological Applications 9(4):1305–1315Google Scholar
  5. Bonan GB (2001) Observational evidence for reduction of daily maximum temperature by croplands in the Midwest United States. J Clim 14(11): 2430–2442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bonan GB (2002) Ecological climatology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp 690Google Scholar
  7. Bonan GB, Pollard D, Thompson SL (1992) Effects of boreal forest vegetation on global climate. Nature 359: 716–718CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bonan GB, Chapin FS III, Thompson SL (1995) Boreal forest and tundra ecosystems as components of the climate system. Clim Change 29: 145–167Google Scholar
  9. Brovkin V, Levis S, Loutre MF, Crucifix M, Claussen M, Ganopolski A, Kubatzki C, Petoukhov V (2003) Stability analysis of the climate-vegetation system in the northern high latitudes. Clim Change 57(1–2): 119–138Google Scholar
  10. Charney JG (1975) Dynamics of deserts and droughts in the Sahel. Q J R Meteorol Soc 101: 193–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Charney JG, Stone PH, Quirk WJ (1975) Drought in the Sahara: a biogeophysical feedback mechanism. Science 187: 434–435Google Scholar
  12. Charney JG, Quirk WJ, Chow S-H, Kornfield J (1977) A comparative study of the effects of albedo change on drought in semi-arid regions. J Atmos Sci 34: 1366–1385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chase TN, Pielke RA, Kittel TGF, Nemani R, Running SW (1996) Sensitivity of a general circulation model to global changes in leaf area index. J Geophys Res 101(D3): 7393–7408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chase TN, Pielke RA, Kittel TGF, Nemani RR, Running SW (2000) Simulated impacts of historical land cover changes on global climate in northern winter. Clim Dyn 16(2–3): 93–105Google Scholar
  15. Cohen J, Saito K, Entekhabi D (2001) The role of the Siberian high in Northern Hemisphere climate variability. Geophys Res Lett 28(2): 299–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Collatz GJ, Ribas-Carbo M, Berry JA (1992) Coupled photosynthesis-stomatal conductance model for leaves of C4 plants. Aust J Plant Physiol 19: 519–538Google Scholar
  17. Collatz GJ, Ball JT, Grivet C, Berry JA (1991) Physiological and environmental regulation of stomatal conductance, photosynthesis and transpiration: a model that includes a laminar boundary layer. Agric Forest Meteorol 53: 107–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Copeland JH, Pielke RA, Kittel TGF (1996) Potential climatic impacts of vegetation change: a regional modeling study. J Geophys Res-Atmos 101(D3): 7409–7418Google Scholar
  19. Costa MH, Foley JA (2000) Combined effects of deforestation and doubled atmospheric CO2 concentrations on the climate of Amazonia. J Clim 13(1): 18–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Delire C, Behling P, Coe MT, Foley JA, Jacob R, Kutzbach J, Liu ZY, Vavrus S (2001) Simulated response of the atmosphere-ocean system to deforestation in the Indonesian Archipelago. Geophys Res Lett 28(10): 2081–2084CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Delire C, Levis S, Bonan GB, Foley JA, Coe MT, Vavrus S (2002) Comparison of the climate simulated by the CCM3 coupled to two different land-surface models. Clim Dyn 19: 657–669CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dias MAFS, Rutledge S, Kabat P, Dias PLS, Nobre C, Fisch G, Dolman AJ, Zipser E, Garstang M, Manzi AO, Fuentes JD, Rocha HR, Marengo J, Plana-Fattori A, Sa LDA, Alvala RCS, Andreae MO, Artaxo P, Gielow R, Gatti L (2002) Cloud and rain processes in a biosphere-atmosphere interaction context in the Amazon Region. J Geophys Res-Atmos 107(D20): LBA 39: 1–18Google Scholar
  23. Dickinson RE, Henderson-Sellers A (1988) Modelling tropical deforestation: a study of GCM land-surface parameterizations. Q J R Meteorol Soc 114: 439–462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dickinson RE, Kennedy P (1992) Impacts on regional climate of amazon deforestation. Geophys Res Lett 19(19): 1947–1950Google Scholar
  25. Eltahir EAB (1996) Role of vegetation in sustaining large-scale atmospheric circulations in the tropics. J Geophys Res 101(D2): 4255–4268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Farquhar GD, von Caemmerer S, Berry JA (1980) A biochemical model of photosynthetic CO2 assimilation in leaves of C3 species. Planta 149: 78–90Google Scholar
  27. Foley JA, Prentice IC, Ramankutty N, Levis S, Pollard D, Sitch S, Haxeltine A (1996) An integrated biosphere model of land surface processes, terrestrial carbon balance, and vegetation dynamics. Glob Biogeochem Cycle 10(4): 603–628CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Fraedrich K, Kleidon A, Lunkeit F (1999) A green planet versus a desert world: Estimating the effect of vegetation extremes on the atmosphere. J Clim 12(10): 3156–3163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ganopolski A, Petoukhov V, Rahmstorf S, Brovkin V, Claussen M, Eliseev A, Kubatzki C (2001) CLIMBER-2: a climate system model of intermediate complexity. Part II: model sensitivity. Clim Dyn 17(10): 735–751CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hack JJ, Kiehl JT, Hurrell JW (1998) The hydrologic and thermodynamic characteristics of the NCAR CCM3. J Clim 11(6): 1179–1206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hahmann AN, Dickinson RE (1997) RCCM2-BATS model over tropical South America: applications to tropical deforestation. J Clim 10: 1944–1964CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Henderson-Sellers A, Dickinson RE, Durbridge TB, Kennedy PJ, McGuffie K, Pitman AJ (1993) Tropical deforestation: modeling local- to regional- scale climate change. J Geophys Res 98(D4): 7289–7315Google Scholar
  33. Hurrell JW, Hack JJ, Boville BA, Williamson DL, Kiehl JT (1998) The dynamical simulation of the NCAR Community Climate Model version 3 (CCM3). J Clim 11(6): 1207–1236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. IGBP-DIS (1999) Global soil data task: spatial database of soil properties. International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme - Data and Information System, Toulouse, FranceGoogle Scholar
  35. Kiehl JT, Hack JJ, Bonan GB, Boville BA, Williamson DL, Rasch PJ (1998a) The National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate Model: CCM3. J Clim 11(6): 1131–1149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kiehl JT, Hack JJ, Hurrell JW (1998b) The energy budget of the NCAR Community Climate Model: CCM3. J Clim 11(6): 1151–1178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kleidon A, Fraedrich K, Heimann M (2000) A green planet versus a desert world: Estimating the maximum effect of vegetation on the land surface climate. Clim Change 44(4): 471–493CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kucharik CJ, Foley JA, Delire C, Fisher VA, Coe MT, Lenters JD, Young-Molling C, Ramankutty N, Norman JM, Gower ST (2000) Testing the performance of a Dynamic Global Ecosystem Model: water balance, carbon balance, and vegetation structure. Glob Biogeochem Cycle 14(3): 795–825CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lean J, Warrilow DA (1989) Simulation of the regional climatic impact of amazon deforestation. Nature 342: 411–413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Lean J, Rowntree PR (1993) A GCM simulation of the impact of amazonian deforestation on climate using an improved canopy representation. Q J R Meteorol Soc 119: 509–530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lean J, Rowntree PR (1997) Understanding the sensitivity of a GCM simulation of Amazonian deforestation to the specification of vegetation and soil characteristics. J Clim 10(6): 1216–1235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Levis S, Foley JA, Brovkin V, Pollard D (1999) On the stability of the high-latitude climate-vegetation system in a coupled atmosphere-biosphere model. Global Ecol Biogeogr 8(6): 489–500CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. New M, Hulme M, Jones P (1999) Representing twentieth-century space-time climate variability. Part I: development of a 1961–90 mean monthly terrestrial climatology. J Clim 12(3): 829–856CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Nobre CA, Sellers PJ, Shukla J (1991a) Amazonian deforestation and regional climate change. J Clim 4(10): 957–988CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Nobre CA, Sellers PJ, Shukla J (1991b) Amazonian deforestation and regional climate change. J Clim 4: 957–988CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Pielke RA (2001) Influence of the spatial distribution of vegetation and soils on the prediction of cumulus convective rainfall. Rev Geophys 39(2): 151–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Pielke RA, Vidale PL (1995) The boreal forest and the polar front. J Geophys Res 100(D12): 25,755–25,758CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Pitman AJ (2003) The evolution of, and revolution in, land surface schemes designed for climate models. Int J Climatol 23: 479–510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Polcher J, Laval K (1994) The impact of african and amazonian deforestation on tropical climate. J Hydrol 155: 389–405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Ramankutty N, Foley JA (1999) Estimating historical changes in global land cover: Croplands from 1700 to 1992. Glob Biogeochem Cycle 13(4): 997–1027CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Renssen H, Goosse H, Fichefet T (2003) On the non-linear response of the ocean thermohaline circulation to global deforestation. Geophys Res Lett 30(2): 33 1–4Google Scholar
  52. Sud YC, Shukla J, Mintz Y (1988) Influence of land surface-roughness on atmospheric circulation and precipitation - a sensitivity study with a general- circulation model. J Appl Meteorol 27(9): 1036–1054CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Sud YC, Walker GK, Kim JH, Liston GE, Sellers PJ, Lau WKM (1996) Biogeophysical consequences of a tropical deforestation scenario: A GCM simulation study. J Clim 9(12): 3225–3247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Thomas G, Rowntree PR (1992) The boreal forests and climate. Q J R Meteorol Soc 118: 469–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Wang G, Eltahir EAB (2000a) Ecosystem dynamics and the Sahel drought. Geophys Res Lett 27(6): 795–798CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Wang GL, Eltahir EAB (2000b) Biosphere-atmosphere interactions over West Africa. I: Development and validation of a coupled dynamic model. Q J R Meteorol Soc 126(565): 1239–1260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Wang GL, Eltahir EAB (2000c) Biosphere-atmosphere interactions over West Africa. II: multiple climate equilibria. Q J R Meteorol Soc 126(565): 1261–1280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Xue Y, Sellers P, Kinter J, Shukla J (1991) A simplified biosphere model for global climate studies. J Clim 4(3): 345–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Zhang H, McGuffie K, HendersonSellers A (1996a) Impacts of tropical deforestation. Part II: the role of large-scale dynamics. J Clim 9(10): 2498–2521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Zhang H, Henderson-Sellers A, McGuffie K (1996b) Impacts of tropical deforestation. Part I: process analysis of local climatic change. J Clim 9(7): 1497–1517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Zhao M, Pitman AJ, Chase T (2001) The impact of land cover change on the atmospheric circulation. Clim Dyn 17(5–6): 467–477Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag  2004

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Sustainability and the Global Environment (SAGE) Nelson Institute for Environmental Studies, University of WisconsinUSA
  2. 2.Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic SciencesUniversity of WisconsinMadisonUSA

Personalised recommendations