Climate Dynamics

, Volume 23, Issue 1, pp 63–78 | Cite as

Wet season Mediterranean precipitation variability: influence of large-scale dynamics and trends

  • E. Xoplaki
  • J. F. González-Rouco
  • J. Luterbacher
  • H. Wanner


The influence of the large-scale atmospheric circulation at several tropospheric levels on wet season precipitation over 292 sites across the Mediterranean area is assessed. A statistical downscaling model is designed with an objective methodology based on empirical orthogonal functions and canonical correlation analysis (CCA) and tested by means of cross-validation. In all 30% of the total Mediterranean October to March precipitation variability can be accounted for by the combination of four large-scale geopotential height fields and sea level pressure. The Mediterranean sea surface temperatures seem to be less relevant to explain precipitation variability at interannual time scale. It is shown that interdecadal changes in the first CCA mode are related to variations in the North Atlantic Oscillation index and responsible for comparable time scale variations of the Mediterranean precipitation throughout the twentieth century. The analysis reveals that since the mid-nineteenth century precipitation steadily increased with a maximum in the 1960s and decreased since then. The second half of the twentieth century shows a general downward trend of 2.2 mm·month–1·decade–1.



The authors wish to express their thanks to the following institutions or persons, who kindly provided their valuable instrumental time series, through which the climate analysis for the Mediterranean region was made possible (in alphabetical order of the countries). Albania: Prof. Sanxhaku, Academy of Sciences, Hydrometeorological Institute, Tirana; Algeria: Dr. M. Kadi, Office National de la Météorologie Climate Center, Dar el Beida, Alger; Austria: Drs. I. Auer, R. Böhm and W. Schöner, Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik (ZAMG), HOHE WARTE 38, Vienna; Bosnia-Herzegovina: Dr. E. Sarac, Federal Meteorological Institute, Sarajevo; Bulgaria: National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia and D. Lister, Climatic Research Unit, University of East Anglia, Norwich; Croatia: Dr. M. Gajic-Capka, Meteorological and Hydrological Service of Croatia, Department for Meteorological Research, Zagreb; Cyprus: Dr. L. Hadjioannou, Ministry of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Environment, Meteorological Service, Nicosia; Greece: Hellenic National Meteorological Service, Hellinikon, Athens; Israel: Dr. A. Porat, Ministry of Transport, Israel Meteorological Service; Bet Dagan; Italy: Colonel Dr. M. Capaldo, Aeronautica Militare, Centro Nazionale di Meteorologia e Climatologia Aeronautica Aeroporto Pratica di Mare, Pomezia; Jordan: Dr. H. AL Sha’er, The Hashimite Kingdom of Jordan, Meteorological Department Climate Division Amman Civil Airport, Amman; Lebanon: Dr. A. Bejjani, Republic of Lebanon, Ministry of Transport, Meteorological Services, International Airport of Beyrouth, Beyrouth; Libya: Dr. K. Elfadli, Libyan Meteorological Department, Climatological and Agrometeorological Section, Tripoli; Moldavia: Dr. L. Fisher, Hidrometeo Service (Chimet), Chisinau; Romania: Dr. A. Busuioc, National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology, Bucharest; Skopje: Dr. N. Aleksovska, Hydrometeorological Institute of the FYR Macedonia, Meteorological and Climatological division, Skopje; Slovenia: Dres. T. Ovsenik-Jeglié, J. Miklavçiç and B. Zupani, Hydrometeorological Institute of Slovenia, Ministry of the environment and Physical Planning, Ljubliana; Spain: Universidad Computense de Madrid, Madrid; Switzerland: Swiss Meteorological Office, (SMA MeteoSchweiz), Zurich Tunisia: Dr. M. Ketata and Prof. H. Hajji, République tunesienne, Ministére de Transport, Institute National de la Météorologique, Tunis-Carthage. For Egypt, France, Hungary, Malta, Morocco, Portugal, Serbia, Syria and Turkey the data have been obtained from the GHCN (Global Historical Climatology Network) version 2b and/or where kindly provided by the German Meterological Service (DWD), Geschäftsfeld Seeschifffahrt and David Lister, Climatic Research Unit, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK. Tommaso Abrate, Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, WMO, Geneva, Switzerland, provided us with addresses and relevant information on how to contact the responsible persons and institutions from the different countries. We also thank NCEP/NCAR for providing their reanalysis data. We are indebted to the British Meterological Office for the preparation of the gridded SST data. Dr. Elena Xoplaki was partially supported by Fifth Framework Programme of the European Union (project SOAP); Dr. J. Fidel González-Rouco was partially funded by project REN-2000-0786-cli and REN-2002-04584-C04-01-CLI; Dr. Jürg Luterbacher was supported by the Swiss Science Foundation (NCCR Climate). The authors wish to thank the Marchese Francesco Medici del Vascello Foundation for financial support. We thank Paul Della-Marta for proofreading the English text. The authors thank Dr. Gidon Eshel and an anonymous reviewer for their constructive comments on this manuscript.


  1. Barnett TP, Preisendorfer RW (1987) Origins and levels of monthly and seasonal forecast skill for United States air temperature determined by canonical correlation analysis. Mon Weather Rev 115: 1825–1850CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barnston AG, Livezey RE (1987) Classification, seasonality and persistence of low frequency atmospheric circulation patterns. Mon Weather Rev 115: 1825–1850CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bartzokas A, Metaxas DA, Ganas IS (1994) Spatial and temporal sea-surface temperature covariances in the Mediterranean. Int J Climatol 14: 201–213Google Scholar
  4. Buffoni L, Maugeri M, Nanni T (1999) Precipitation in Italy 1833 to 1996. Theor Appl Climatol 63: 33–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Buffoni L, Maugeri M, Nanni T (2000) Variation of temperature and precipitation in Italy from 1866 to 1995. Theor Appl Climatol 65: 165–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Busuioc A, von Storch H (1996) Changes in the winter precipitation in Romania and its relation to the large scale circulation. Tellus 48A: 538–552Google Scholar
  7. Busuioc A, von Storch H, Schnur R (1999) Verification of GCM-generated regional seasonal precipitation for current climate and of statistical downscaling estimates under changing climate conditions. J Clim 12: 258–272Google Scholar
  8. Corte-Real J, Zhang X, Wang X (1995) Large-scale circulation regimes and surface climatic anomalies over the Mediterranean. Int J Climatol 15: 1135–1150Google Scholar
  9. Cubasch U, Meehl GA, Boer GJ, Stouffer RJ, Dix M, Noda A, Senior CA, Raper S, Yap KS (2001) Projections of future climate change. In: Houghton JT, Ding Y, Griggs DJ, Noguer M, van der Linden PJ, Xiaoxu D (eds) Chapter 9 of climate change 2001; the scientific basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp 99–181Google Scholar
  10. Dünkeloh A, Jacobeit J (2003) Circulation dynamics of Mediterranean precipitation variability 1948–98. Int J Climatol 23: 1843–1866CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Easterling DR, Karl TR, Gallo KP, Robinson TA, Trenberth KE, Dai AG (2000) Observed climate variability and change of relevance to the biosphere. J Geophys Res 105: 20,101–20,114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Edwards AL (1984) An introduction to linear regression and correlation, 2nd edn. Freeman WH, New York, pp 81–83Google Scholar
  13. Eshel G (2002) Mediterranean climates. Isr J Earth Sci 51: 157–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Eshel G, Farrell BF (2000) Mechanisms of Eastern Mediterranean rainfall variability. J Atmos Sci 57: 3219–3232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Eshel G, Cane MA, Farrell BF (2000) Forecasting Eastern Mediterranean drought. Mon Weather Rev 128: 3618–3630CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Esteban-Parra MJ, Rodrigo FS, Castro-Diez Y (1998) Spatial and temporal patterns of precipitation in Spain for the period 1880–1992. Int J Climatol 14: 1557–1574CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Fernández J, Saenz J, Zorita E (2003) Analysis of wintertime atmospheric moisture transport and its variability over Southern Europe in the NCEP-Reanalyses. Clim Res 23: 195–215Google Scholar
  18. Folland CK, Karl TP, Christy JR, Clarke RA, Gruza GV, Jouzel J, Mann ME, Oerlemans J, Salinger MJ, Wang SW (2001) Observed climate variability and change. In: Houghton JT, Ding Y, Griggs DJ, Noguer M, van der Linden PJ, Xiaoxu D (eds) Chapter 2 of climate change 2001; the scientific basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK, pp 99–181Google Scholar
  19. Fotiadi AK, Metaxas DA, Bartzokas A (1999) A statistical study of precipitation in northwest Greece. Int J Climatol 19: 1221–1232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gibelin A-L, DéquéM (2003) Anthropogenic climate change over the Mediterranean region simulated by a global variable resolution model. Clim Dyn 20: 327–339 DOI 10.1007/s00382-002-0277-1Google Scholar
  21. Gillett NP, Allen MR, McDonald RE, Senior CA, Shindell DT, Schmidt GA (2002) How linear is the Arctic Oscillation response to greenhouse gases? J Geophys Res 107 DOI:10.1029/2001JD000589Google Scholar
  22. Giorgi F (2002a) Variability and trends of sub-continental scale surface climate in the twentieth century. Part I: observations. Clim Dyn 18: 675–691 DOI 10.1007/s00382-001-0204-xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Giorgi F (2002b) Variability and trends of sub-continental scale surface climate in the twentieth century. Part II: AOGCM simulations. Clim Dyn 18: 693–708 DOI 10.1007/s00382-001-0205-9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Giorgi F, Francisco R (2000a) Uncertainties in regional climate change predictions. A regional analysis of ensemble simulations with the HADCM2 AOGCM. Clim Dyn 16: 169–182Google Scholar
  25. Giorgi F, Francisco R (2000b) Evaluating uncertainties in the prediction of regional climate change. Geophys Res Lett 27: 1295–1298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. González-Rouco JF, Heyen H, Zorita E, Valero F (2000) Agreement between observed rainfall trends and climate change simulations in Southern Europe. J Clim 13: 3057–3065CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. González-Rouco JF, Jimenez JL, Quesada V, Valero F (2001) Quality control and homogenization of monthly precipitation data in the southwest of Europe. J Clim 14: 964–978CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gutowski WJ Jr, Chen Y, Ötles Z (1997) Atmospheric water vapor transport in NCEP-NCAR reanalyses: comparison with river discharge in the central United States. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 78: 1957–1969CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Higgins RW, Mo KC, Schubert SD (1996) The moisture budget of the central United States as evaluated in the NCEP/NCAR and the NASA/DAO reanalyses. Mon Weather Rev 124: 939–963CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hoerling MP, Hurrell JW, Xu T, Bates GT, Phillips A (2004) Twentieth century North Atlantic climate change. Part II: Understanding the effect of Indian Ocean warming. Clim Dyn (in press)Google Scholar
  31. Hulme M, Barrow EM, Arnell NW, Harrison PA, Johns TC, Downing TE (1999) Relative impacts of human-induced climate change and natural variability. Nature 397: 688–691CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hunt B, Gordon H (1988) The problem of naturally occurring drought. Clim Dyn 3: 19–33Google Scholar
  33. Hurrell JW (1995) Decadal trends in the North Atlantic Oscillation: regional temperatures and precipitation. Science 269: 676–679Google Scholar
  34. Hurrell JW, Hoerling MP, Phillips A, Xu T (2004) Twentieth century North Atlantic climate change. Part I: Assessing determinism. Clim Dyn (in press)Google Scholar
  35. IPCC (2001) Climate change 2001: the scientific basis. Contribution of Working Group I to Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Houghton, JT, Ding Y, Griggs DJ, Noguer M, van der Linden PJ, Dai X, Maskell K, Johnson CA (eds) Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK and New York, NY, USAGoogle Scholar
  36. Jacobeit J (2000) Rezente Klimaentwicklung im Mittelmeerraum. Petermanns Geogr Mittl 144: 22–33Google Scholar
  37. Janowiak JE, Gruber A, Kondragunta CR, Livezey RE, Hufman GJ (1998) a comparison of the NCEP-NCAR reanalysis precipitation and the GPCP rain gauge-satellite combined dataset with observational error considerations. J Clim 11: 2960–2979CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Jones PD, Jonsson T, Wheeler D (1997) Extension to the North Atlantic Oscillation using early instrumental pressure observations from Gibraltar and Southwest Iceland. Int J Climatol 17: 1433–1450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Jones PD, Mann ME (2004) Climate over past millennia. Rev Geophys 42. RG2002 DOI 10.1029/2003RG000143Google Scholar
  40. Kadioğlu M (2000) Regional variability of seasonal precipitation over Turkey. Int J Climatol 20: 1743–1760CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kadioğlu M, Tulunay Y, Borhan Y (1999) Variability of Turkish precipitation compared to El Nio events. Geophys Res Lett 26: 1597–1600CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kalnay et al. (1996) The NCEP/NCAR 40-Year Reanalysis Project. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 77: 437–471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Karaca M, Deniz A, TayançM (2000) Cyclone track variability over Turkey in association with regional climate. Int J Climatol 20: 1225–1236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kistler R et al. (2001) The NCEP-NCAR 50-year Reanalysis: monthly means CD-ROM and documentation. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 82: 247–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Knippertz P, Christoph M, Speth P (2002) Long-term precipitation variability in Morocco and the link to the large-scale circulation in recent and future climates. Meteorol Atmos Phys DOI 10.1007/s00703-002-0561-yGoogle Scholar
  46. Kutiel H, Maheras P, Guika S (1996a) Circulation indices over the Mediterranean and Europe and their relationship with rainfall conditions across the Mediterranean. Theor Appl Climatol 54: 125–138Google Scholar
  47. Kutiel H, Maheras P, Guika S (1996b) Circulation and extreme rainfall conditions in the eastern Mediterranean during the last century. Int J Climatol 16: 73–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Livezey RE, Smith TM (1999) Considerations for use of the Barnett and Preisendorfer (1987) algorithm for canonical correlation analysis of climate variations. J Clim 12: 303–305Google Scholar
  49. Maheras P (2000) Synoptic situations causing drought in the Mediterranean basin. In: Vogt JV, Somma F (eds) Drought and drought mitigation in Europe. Kluwer Academic, pp 91–102Google Scholar
  50. Mariotti A, Struglia MV (2002) The hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean region and implications for the water budget of the Mediterranean Sea. J Clim 15: 1674–1690CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Matulla C, Scheifinger H, Menzel A, Koch E (2003) Exploring two methods for statistical downscaling of Central European phenological time series. Int J Biometeorol 48:56–64 DOI 10.1007/s00484-003-0186-yCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Michaelsen J (1987) Cross-validation in statistical climate forecast models. J Clim Appl Meteor 26: 1589–1600CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Mo KC, Higgins RW (1996) Large-scale atmospheric moisture transport as evaluated in the NCEP/NCAR and the NASA/DAO reanalyses. J Clim 9: 1531–1545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. New MG, Hulme M, Jones PD (2000) Representing twentieth-century space time climate fields. Part II: development of a 1901–1996 mean monthly terrestrial climatology. J Clim 13: 2217–2238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. New M, Todd M, Hulme M, Jones P (2001) Precipitation measurements and trends in the twentieth century. Int J Climatol 21: 1899–1922CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Nicholls N, Gruza GV, Jouzel J, Karl TR, Ogallo LA, Parker DE (1996) Observed Climate variability and change. In: Houghton JT, Meira Filho LG, Callander BA, Harris N, Kattenberg A, Maskell K (eds) Chapter 3 of climate change 1995; the science of climate change, Contribution of Working Group I to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp 133–192Google Scholar
  57. North GR, Moeng FJ, Bell TL, Cahalan RF (1982) The latitude dependence of the variance of zonally averaged quantities. Mon Weather Rev 110: 319–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Osborn TJ (2004) Simulating the winter North Atlantic Oscillation: the roles of internal variability and greenhouse gas forcing. Clim Dyn DOI 10.1007/s00382-004-0405-1Google Scholar
  59. Paeth H, Hense A, Glowienka-Hense R, Voss R, Cubasch U (1999) The North Atlantic Oscillation as an indicator for greenhouse gas induced regional climate change. Clim Dyn 15: 953–960CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Peixoto JP, De Almeida M, Rosen RD, Salstein DA (1982) Atmospheric moisture transport and the water balance of the Mediterranean Sea. Water Resour Res 18: 83–90Google Scholar
  61. Peterson TC, Vose RS, Schmoyer R, Razuvaëv V (1998) Global historical climatology network (GHCN) quality control of monthly temperature data. Int J Climatol 18: 1169–1179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Piervitali E, Colacino M, Conte M (1998) Rainfall over the central-western Mediterranean Basin in the period 1951–1995. Part I: precipitation trends. Il Nuovo Cimento 21C: 331–344Google Scholar
  63. Quadrelli R, Pavan V, Molteni F (2001) Wintertime variability of Mediterranean precipitation and its links with large-scale circulation anomalies. Clim Dyn 17: 457–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Rayner NA, Horton EB, Parker DE, Folland CK, Hackett RB (1996) Version 2.2 of the Global Sea-Ice and Sea Surface Temperature Data Set, 1903–1994. Climate Research Technical Note 74, unpublished document available from Hadley CentreGoogle Scholar
  65. Reddaway JM, Bigg GR (1996) Climatic change over the Mediterranean and links to the more general atmospheric circulation. Int J Climatol 16: 651–661CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Rimbu N, le Treut H, Janicot S, Boroneant C, Laurent C (2001) Decadal precipitation variability over Europe and its relation with surface atmospheric circulation and sea surface temperature. Q J R Meteorol Soc 127: 315–329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Rodrigo FS (2002) Changes in climate variability and seasonal rainfall extremes: a case study from San Fernando (Spain), 1821–2000. Theor Appl Climatol 72: 193–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Thompson DWJ, Wallace JM (1998) The Arctic Oscillation signature in the wintertime geopotential height and temperature fields. Geophys Res Lett 25: 1297–1300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Tomozeiu R, Lazzeri M, Cacciamani C (1995) Precipitation fluctuations during the winter season from 1960 to 1995 over Emilia-Romagna, Italy. Theor Appl Climatol 72: 221–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Trenberth K, Paolino DA (1980) The Northern Hemisphere sea-level pressure data set: trends, errors and discontinuities. Mon Weather Rev 108: 855–872CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Trigo IF, Davies TD, Bigg GR (1999) Objective climatology of cyclones in the Mediterranean Region. J clim 12: 1685–1696CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Trigo IF, Davies TD, Bigg GR (2000) Decline in Mediterranean rainfall caused by weakening of Mediterranean cyclones. Geophys Res Lett 27: 2913–2916CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. TürkeşM (1998) Influence of geopotential heights, cyclone frequency and southern oscillation on rainfall variations in Turkey. Int J Climatol 18: 649–680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. von Storch H, Zwiers FW (1999) Statistical analysis in climate research. Cambridge University Press, UKGoogle Scholar
  75. von Storch H, Zorita E, Cubasch U (1993) Downscaling of global climate change estimates to regional scales: an application to Iberian rainfall in wintertime. J Clim 6: 1161–1171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Vose RS, Schmoyer RL, Steurer PM, Peterson TC, Heim R, Karl TR, Eischeid J (1992) The Global Historical Climatology Network: long-term monthly temperature, precipitation, sea level pressure, and station pressure data. ORNL/CDIAC-53, NDP- 041, Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USAGoogle Scholar
  77. Ward NN (1998) Diagnosis and short-lead predictions of summer rainfall in tropical North Africa at interannual and multidecadal time scales. J clim 11: 3167–3191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Widmann M, Bretherton CS (2000) Validation of mesoscale precipitation in the NCEP reanalysis using a new grid-cell dataset for the northwestern United States. J Clim 13: 1936–1950CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Widmann M, Bretherton CS, SalathéEP Jr (2003) Statistical precipitation downscaling over the northwestern United States using numerically simulated precipitation as a predictor. J Clim 16: 799–816CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Wilks DS (1995) Statistical Methods in the Atmospheric Sciences: an Introduction. In: Dmowska R, Holton JR (eds) International Geophysics Series, 59. Academic PressGoogle Scholar
  81. WMO (1986) Guidelines on the quality control of surface climatological data/prepared by Abbott PF (UK) as Rapporteur in the WMO Commission for Climatology. Geneva: WCP, (WCP-85). iv, appendicesGoogle Scholar
  82. Xoplaki E (2002) Climate variability over the Mediterranean. PhD thesis, University of Bern, Switzerland ([])Google Scholar
  83. Xoplaki E, González-Rouco JF, Luterbacher J, Wanner H (2003a) Mediterranean summer air temperature variability and its connection to the large-scale atmospheric circulation and SSTs. Clim Dyn 20: 723–739 DOI 10.1007/s00382-003-0304-xGoogle Scholar
  84. Xoplaki E, González-Rouco FJ, Gyalistras D, Luterbacher J, Rickli R, Wanner H (2003b) Interannual summer air temperature variability over Greece and its connection to the large-scale atmospheric circulation and Mediterranean SSTs 1950–1999. Clim Dyn 20: 523–536 DOI 10.1007/s00382-002-0291-3Google Scholar
  85. Xoplaki E, Luterbacher J, Burkard R, Patrikas I, Maheras P (2000) Connection between the large-scale 500 hPa geopotential height fields and precipitation over Greece during wintertime. Clim Res 14: 129–146Google Scholar
  86. Xu JS (1993) The joint modes of the coupled atmosphere-ocean system observed from 1967 to 1987. J Clim 6: 816–838CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Zorita E, González-Rouco JF (2002) Are temperature sensitive proxies adequate for North Atlantic Oscillation reconstructions? Geophys Res Lett 29 DOI 10.1029/2002GL015404)Google Scholar
  88. Zorita E, von Storch H (1999) The analog method as a simple statistical downscaling technique: comparison with more complicated methods. J Clim 12: 2474–2489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Zorita E, Kharin V, von Storch H (1992) The atmospheric circulation and sea surface temperature in the North Atlantic area in winter: their interaction and relevance for Iberian precipitation. J Clim 5: 1097–1108CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag  2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. Xoplaki
    • 1
  • J. F. González-Rouco
    • 2
  • J. Luterbacher
    • 1
    • 3
  • H. Wanner
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute of GeographyUniversity of BernBernSwitzerland
  2. 2.Departamento de Astrofísica y Ciencias de la AtmósferaUniversidad Complutense de MadridMadridSpain
  3. 3.NCCR ClimateUniversity of BernBernSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations