Climate Dynamics

, Volume 20, Issue 6, pp 583–612 | Cite as

Anthropogenic climate change for 1860 to 2100 simulated with the HadCM3 model under updated emissions scenarios

  • T. C. Johns
  • J. M. Gregory
  • W. J. Ingram
  • C. E. Johnson
  • A. Jones
  • J. A. Lowe
  • J. F. B. Mitchell
  • D. L. Roberts
  • D. M. H. Sexton
  • D. S. Stevenson
  • S. F. B. Tett
  • M. J. Woodage
Article

Abstract.

In this study we examine the anthropogenically forced climate response over the historical period, 1860 to present, and projected response to 2100, using updated emissions scenarios and an improved coupled model (HadCM3) that does not use flux adjustments. We concentrate on four new Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) namely (A1FI, A2, B2, B1) prepared for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Third Assessment Report, considered more self-consistent in their socio-economic and emissions structure, and therefore more policy relevant, than older scenarios like IS92a. We include an interactive model representation of the anthropogenic sulfur cycle and both direct and indirect forcings from sulfate aerosols, but omit the second indirect forcing effect through cloud lifetimes. The modelled first indirect forcing effect through cloud droplet size is near the centre of the IPCC uncertainty range. We also model variations in tropospheric and stratospheric ozone. Greenhouse gas-forced climate change response in B2 resembles patterns in IS92a but is smaller. Sulfate aerosol and ozone forcing substantially modulates the response, cooling the land, particularly northern mid-latitudes, and altering the monsoon structure. By 2100, global mean warming in SRES scenarios ranges from 2.6 to 5.3 K above 1900 and precipitation rises by 1%/K through the twenty first century (1.4%/K omitting aerosol changes). Large-scale patterns of response broadly resemble those in an earlier model (HadCM2), but with important regional differences, particularly in the tropics. Some divergence in future response occurs across scenarios for the regions considered, but marked drying in the mid-USA and southern Europe and significantly wetter conditions for South Asia, in June–July–August, are robust and significant.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. C. Johns
    • 1
  • J. M. Gregory
    • 1
  • W. J. Ingram
    • 1
  • C. E. Johnson
    • 1
  • A. Jones
    • 1
  • J. A. Lowe
    • 1
  • J. F. B. Mitchell
    • 1
  • D. L. Roberts
    • 1
  • D. M. H. Sexton
    • 1
  • D. S. Stevenson
    • 2
  • S. F. B. Tett
    • 1
  • M. J. Woodage
    • 1
  1. 1.Met Office, Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, London Road, Bracknell, RG12 2SY, UK
  2. 2.Department of Meteorology, University of Edinburgh King's Buildings, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ, Scotland, UK

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