Not all ventriculomegaly is created equal: diagnostic overview of fetal, neonatal and pediatric ventriculomegaly

  • Smruti K. Patel
  • Jorge Zamorano-Fernandez
  • Usha Nagaraj
  • Karin S. Bierbrauer
  • Francesco T. ManganoEmail author
Focus Session


Fetal ventriculomegaly refers to a condition in which there is enlargement of the ventricular spaces, typically on prenatal ultrasound. It can be associated with other CNS or extra-CNS abnormalities, and this relationship is crucial to understand as it affects overall neonatal outcome. Isolated ventriculomegaly has been described in the literature with variable clinical outcome. Typically, outcome is based on the etiology and degree of ventriculomegaly. When associated with a pathologic condition, ventriculomegaly can be a result of hydrocephalus. While initial diagnosis is usually made on prenatal ultrasound, fetal magnetic resonance imaging is preferred to further elucidate any associated CNS malformations. In this paper, the authors aim to provide a comprehensive review of the diagnosis, associated etiologies, prognosis, and treatment options related to fetal, neonatal, and pediatric ventriculomegaly and hydrocephalus. In addition, preliminary data is provided from our institutional cohort of patients with a prenatal diagnosis of ventriculomegaly followed through the perinatal period.


Fetal ventriculomegaly Hydrocephalus Fetus Fetal magnetic resonance imaging Myelomeningocele 



Central nervous system


Intracranial pressure


Gestational age


Magnetic resonance imaging


Computed tomography


Fetal magnetic resonance imaging


Cerebrospinal fluid


Congenital aqueductal stenosis


Endoscopic third ventriculostomy


Post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus


Ventricular access device


Ventriculosubgaleal shunt


Lumbar puncture


Agenesis of the corpus callosum


Corpus callosum


Chiari I malformation






Vein of Galen malformation




Choroid plexus cauterization


Diffusion tensor imaging


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of NeurosurgeryUniversity of Cincinnati College of MedicineCincinnatiUSA
  2. 2.Division of Pediatric NeurosurgeryCincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical CenterCincinnatiUSA
  3. 3.Division of RadiologyCincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical CenterCincinnatiUSA

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