Pathogenesis of hydrocephalus in achondroplastic dwarfs: a review and presentation of a case followed for 22 years
- 418 Downloads
The purpose of this work is to review the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of hydrocephalus in patients with achondroplasia as a guide to its management throughout life.
A review of the literature related to neurosurgical issues in achondroplasia with specific focus on cerebrospinal fluid physics, clinical management, and outcome of affected individuals. Issues involved in this review are highlighted by a case report of a patient shunted for achondroplasia first shunted in infancy and followed for 22 years. Each of the management issues is explored with respect to this patient.
Head circumferences in achondroplasia are abnormally large in this condition usually caused by excess cerebrospinal fluid in the cortical subarachnoid space. Increase in ventricular size (hydrocephalus) is not rare but should not be treated unless rapidly progressive or symptomatic. The underlying cause of the abnormalities of cerebrospinal fluid dynamics relates to abnormal venous drainage at the skull base. Patients shunted in infancy for hydrocephalus usually remain dependent on the shunt for life, and crises of high intracranial pressure may occur with no distention of the ventricles.
In infants with achondroplasia, large heads and enlarged ventricles without symptoms should be watched initially for progression. If hydrocephalus progresses or if symptoms of intracranial hypertension occur, endoscopic third ventriculostomy can be tried. If shunt is necessary, it should have a high opening pressure and a device to retard siphoning. In the case of recurrent ventricular catheter blockage, it may be necessary to create a communication between the ventricles and the cortical subarachnoid space.
KeywordsHydrocephalus Achondroplastic dwarfs Endoscopic third ventriculostomy Slit ventricle syndrome
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
I the author of this review attest that I have no conflicts of interest related to any aspect of the paper.
Harold L. Rekate
- 1.Ramakrishnan VR, Steinbok P (2018) Hydrocephalus in achondroplasia and venous hypertension. In: Cinalli G, Sgouros S (eds) Pediatric hydrocephalus. Springer International Publishing, pp 1–24Google Scholar
- 17.Ireland PJ, Ware RS, Donaghey S, McGill J, Zankl A, Pacey V, Ault J, Savarirayan R, Sillence D, Thompson E, Townshend S, Johnston LM (2013) The effect of height, weight and head circumference on gross motor development in achondroplasia. J Paediatr Child Health 49(2):E122–E127CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 23.Kulkarni AV, Schiff SJ, Mbabazi-Kabachelor E, Mugamba J, Ssenyonga P, Donnelly R, Levenbach J, Monga V, Peterson M, MacDonald M, Cherukuri V, Warf BC (2017) Endoscopic treatment versus shunting for infant hydrocephalus in Uganda. N Engl J Med 377(25):2456–2464CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 30.Miller JP, Cohen AR, Rekate HL (2010) Slit ventricle syndrome. In: Jallo GI, Kothbauer KF, Pradilla G (eds) Controversies in pediatric neurosurgery. Thieme Medical Publisher, Inc., New York, pp 51–72Google Scholar