Surgical management of traumatic extradural hematomas in children: an analysis of 201 patients at a tertiary neurosurgical center
The effects of traumatic extradural hematoma (EDH) are potentially reversible if treated early. Pediatric EDH differs from its adult counterpart because of the differential elastic and adherence properties of skull bone and dura respectively. There is a paucity of literature regarding prognosis and factors predicting the outcome of pediatric EDH. In this study, we aimed to study the factors predicting outcome and prognosis of traumatic EDH in the pediatric age group.
Materials and methods
We did a retrospective chart review of all pediatric EDH operated in our center between 2011 and 2017. Factors affecting prognosis were analyzed through univariate and multivariate analyses.
Two hundred one patients qualified for the study. There were 159 boys and 42 girls with a sex ratio of 3.78:1. The most common modes of injury were road traffic accidents (n = 108, 53.3%) followed by falls from a height. The most common clinical presentation was vomiting (n = 168, 83.3%), followed by headache (n = 72, 35.8%). Pupillary asymmetry was present in 11.4% (n = 23) patients. The mean GCS at presentation was 12.71. The mean volume of EDH was 37.18 cc, with a mean maximum thickness of 23.19 mm. The most common location of the EDH was at temporoparietal region (n = 67, 33.3%). The median time of diagnosis from injury was 14.69 h (SD, 32.9 h). The mean GCS at discharge was 14.43 (SD ± 0.51). Sixteen patients were lost to follow; 185 patients were available for follow-up and were included in the outcome analysis. The mean GOS at follow-up was 4.9 (SD ± 0.368) with a median follow-up of 13.46 months. In our cohort, only one child died. Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that pupillary asymmetry, pyramidal signs, low GCS at presentation, associated parenchymal injuries, and post-operative complications correlated negatively with outcome, whereas vomiting correlated positively with outcome.
Pediatric EDH differs from adults in complications as well as outcome. EDH in this pediatric cohort had a better outcome with very less mortality. Increased transportation facilities and the industrial revolution may have facilitated the shift of mode of injury from fall of height in the past to road traffic accidents in this study. A large study comparing the outcomes with pediatric and adult patients is warranted.
KeywordsExtradural hematoma Pediatric head injury Glasgow coma scale Glasgow outcome score
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.
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