Child's Nervous System

, Volume 34, Issue 8, pp 1529–1533 | Cite as

Visualization of the periventricular Virchow–Robin spaces with ependymal openings

  • Satoshi TsutsumiEmail author
  • Hideo Ono
  • Hisato Ishii
  • Yukimasa Yasumoto
Original Paper



The morphological relationships between the periventricular Virchow−Robin spaces (VRSs) and cerebral ventricles have been poorly documented. The present study aimed to explore the issue using magnetic resonance imaging.


A total of 211 patients were included in this study. T2-weighted and constructive interference in steady state (CISS) sequences were performed in thin-sliced, coronal sections.


On T2-weighted sequence, the periventricular VRSs with ependymal openings were identified in 34% of 139 subjects. All the openings were located in the lateral wall of the anterior horn. In CISS sequences, such VRSs were found in 39% of 72 subjects. The mean age was significantly higher in the population with such VRSs compared to those without VRSs (p = 0.0047). Of the 58 periventricular VRSs with ependymal openings identified on T2-weighted images, 16% were located in the upper, 36% in the middle, and 48% in the lower part of the lateral wall. Of the 38 such VRSs identified on CISS images, 32% were located in the upper, 24% in the middle, and 42% in the lower part of the lateral wall, and 3% in the upper part of the medial wall.


The ependymal openings of the periventricular VRSs may be centered in the lateral wall of the anterior horn. The coronal CISS sequence can sensitively delineate the VRSs with ependymal openings.


Anterior horn Ependymal openings Magnetic resonance imaging Periventricular Virchow−Robin spaces 


Authors’ contributions

Satoshi Tsutsumi and Hideo Ono developed the project of the study.

Yukimasa Yasumoto was involved in data collection and management.

Satoshi Tsutsumi and Hisato Ishii analyzed the data.

Satoshi Tsutsumi wrote the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors have no conflicts of interest concerning the materials or methods used in this study or the findings presented in this manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Satoshi Tsutsumi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Hideo Ono
    • 2
  • Hisato Ishii
    • 1
  • Yukimasa Yasumoto
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Neurological SurgeryJuntendo University Urayasu HospitalChibaJapan
  2. 2.Division of Radiological Technology, Medical Satellite Yaesu ClinicTokyoJapan

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