Efficacy and safety of endoscopic third ventriculostomy and choroid plexus cauterization for infantile hydrocephalus: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Endoscopic third ventriculostomy/choroid plexus cauterization (ETV/CPC) has gained popularity in its treatment of infantile hydrocephalus over the past decade. In this manuscript, we perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the efficacy and safety of ETV/CPC, and to compare the procedural outcomes between North American and sub-Saharan African cohorts.
Systematic review was performed using four electronic databases and bibliographies of relevant articles, with no language or date restrictions. Cohort studies of participants undergoing ETV/CPC that reported outcome were included using MOOSE guidelines. The outcome was time to repeat CSF diversion or death. Forest plots were created for pooled mean and its 95 % CI of outcome and morbidity.
Of 78 citations, 11 retrospective reviews (with 524 total participants) were eligible. Efficacy was achieved in 63 % participants at follow-up periods between 6 months and 8 years. Adverse events and mortality was reported in 3.7 and 0.4 % of participants, respectively. Publication bias was detected with respect to efficacy and morbidity of the procedure. A large discrepancy in success was identified between ETV/CPC in six studies from sub-Saharan Africa (71 %), compared to three studies from North America (49 %).
The reported success of ETV/CPC for infantile hydrocephalus is higher in sub-Saharan Africa than developed nations. Large long-term prospective multi-center observational studies addressing patient-important outcomes are required to further evaluate the efficacy and safety of this re-emerging procedure.
KeywordsPediatric Hydrocephalus Endoscopic third ventriculostomy Choroid plexus cauterization
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