Child's Nervous System

, Volume 32, Issue 5, pp 781–785 | Cite as

Lumbar ribs: a comprehensive review

  • Islam Aly
  • Jens R. Chapman
  • Rod J. Oskouian
  • Marios Loukas
  • R. Shane Tubbs
Review Paper



To date, no single comprehensive review has been published regarding lumbar ribs. Therefore, the present review was conducted to better elucidate these variant anatomical structures, which can be confused with transverse process fractures or result in miscounting of spine segments for surgical procedures.


Using standard search engines, a review of lumbar ribs was performed.


Lumbar ribs are uncommon but can be misinterpreted on imaging or cause confusion during surgery. Mutations of the FGD1 or Hox10 gene may be involved in the development of lumbar ribs. Knowledge of these structures can decrease misdiagnosis when they are present.


Anatomy Spine Transverse process Imaging Variation Anomaly 



The authors sincerely thank Dr. Akihito Usui from the Department of Diagnostic Image Analysis, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan, for providing us with CT figures illustrating lumbar ribs.

Conflict of interest

The authors report no conflicts of interest


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Islam Aly
    • 1
  • Jens R. Chapman
    • 2
  • Rod J. Oskouian
    • 2
  • Marios Loukas
    • 3
  • R. Shane Tubbs
    • 1
    • 4
  1. 1.Seattle Science FoundationSeattleUSA
  2. 2.Swedish Neuroscience InstituteSeattleUSA
  3. 3.Department of Anatomical SciencesSt. George’s UniversityTrue BlueGrenada
  4. 4.BirminghamUSA

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