Neuroendoscopic biopsy of pediatric brain tumors with small ventricle
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Intraventricular endoscopic procedures to resect or biopsy peri- or intraventricular tumors may have not been used in patients with small ventricles due to the presumed difficulties with ventricular cannulation and the perceived risk of morbidity. The purpose of this study is to review the feasibility and safety of neuroendoscopic procedures in the biopsy of pediatric brain tumors with a small ventricle.
Between January 2006 and January 2013, 72 children were identified with brain tumors confirmed by transventricular endoscopic biopsy. Patients were divided into non-hydrocephalus and hydrocephalus groups, and the ratio of the two groups was 20:52.
In 20 pediatric brain tumors with small ventricle, the targeted lesion was successfully approached under the guidance of neuronavigation. Navigational tracking was especially helpful in entering small ventricles and in approaching the third ventricle through the narrow foramen of Monro. The histopathologic diagnosis was established in all 20 patients: nine germinomas, three mixed germ cell tumors, two pilomyxoid astrocytomas, and two pilocytic astrocytomas. The tumor biopsy sites were the suprasellar area (n = 10), pineal area (n = 4), lateral ventricular wall (n = 4), and mammillary body (n = 1). There were no major morbidities related to the endoscopic procedure.
Neuroendoscopic biopsy or resection of peri- or intraventricular tumors in pediatric patients without hydrocephalus is feasible. Navigation-guided neuroendoscopic procedures improved the accuracy of the neuroendoscopic approach and minimized brain trauma. The absence of ventriculomegaly in patients with brain tumor may not serve as a contraindication to neuroendoscopic tumor biopsy.
KeywordsNeuroendoscopic surgery Intraventricular tumor Neuronavigation Endoscope
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no financial or other conflicts of interest in relation to this research and its publication.
An eight year old female patient admitted with a supra-sellar mass with small ventricle. (FOR: 0.34) An endoscopic biopsy was planned. Entry point and trajectory were defined with a neuronavigation system. Passing through the foramen of Monro, the lesion was identified and biopsy was done with micro forcep. Focal bleeding was controlled with bipolar coagulator. The pathologic result was reported as germinoma (MPG 6574 kb)
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