Child's Nervous System

, Volume 30, Issue 3, pp 441–447 | Cite as

Selective neuropsychological impairments and related clinical factors in children with moyamoya disease of the transient ischemic attack type

  • Yen-Hsuan Hsu
  • Meng-Fai Kuo
  • Mau-Sun Hua
  • Chi-Cheng YangEmail author
Original Paper



Moyamoya disease is characterized by progressive narrowing of bilateral internal carotid arteries. Neuropsychological impairments are suspected due to frequent involvement of the frontotemporal areas. The present study thus aimed to investigate the pattern of neuropsychological function in children diagnosed with moyamoya disease.


Thirteen children with moyamoya disease of the transient ischemic attack type received standardized neuropsychological tests that evaluate general intellectual function, verbal comprehension, perceptual organization, working memory, processing speed, episodic memory, category fluency and visuospatial function. Related clinical factors were also analyzed.


The results showed single-domain cognitive impairment in around 15 % of patients and multiple-domain cognitive impairments in 23 % of patients. Selective impairments of episodic memory and processing speed were especially noted in those with younger age of onset and prolonged symptom duration.


Neuropsychological impairments are not infrequent in children with moyamoya disease despite normal general intellectual functioning. The pattern of cognitive dysfunction is often associated with lesions in frontotemporal areas. Early detection and intervention shall be considered regarding cognitive outcome in pediatric group.


Children Moyamoya disease TIA Neuropsychological function Intelligence 



This work was partially supported by the National Science Council of Taiwan (grant number NSC101-2321-b-182-014).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yen-Hsuan Hsu
    • 1
    • 7
  • Meng-Fai Kuo
    • 2
  • Mau-Sun Hua
    • 1
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  • Chi-Cheng Yang
    • 6
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Psychology, College of ScienceNational Taiwan UniversityTaipei 106Taiwan
  2. 2.Division of Neurosurgery, Department of SurgeryNational Taiwan University HospitalTaipei 100Taiwan
  3. 3.Departments of Psychiatry and NeurologyNational Taiwan University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Taiwan UniversityTaipei 100Taiwan
  4. 4.Neurobiological and Cognitive Science CenterNational Taiwan UniversityTaipei 106Taiwan
  5. 5.Graduate Institute of Brain and Mind SciencesCollege of Medicine, National Taiwan UniversityTaipei 100Taiwan
  6. 6.Division of Clinical Psychology, Master of Behavioral Science, Department of Occupational TherapyCollege of Medicine, Chang-Gung UniversityTaoyuan 333Taiwan
  7. 7.Department of NeurologyTaichung Tzu Chi Hospital, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical FoundationTaichung 427Taiwan

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