Child's Nervous System

, 27:1523 | Cite as

Classification of hydrocephalus: critical analysis of classification categories and advantages of “Multi-categorical Hydrocephalus Classification” (Mc HC)

  • Shizuo Oi
Special Annual Issue



Hydrocephalus is a complex pathophysiology with disturbed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation. There are numerous numbers of classification trials published focusing on various criteria, such as associated anomalies/underlying lesions, CSF circulation/intracranial pressure patterns, clinical features, and other categories. However, no definitive classification exists comprehensively to cover the variety of these aspects. The new classification of hydrocephalus, “Multi-categorical Hydrocephalus Classification” (Mc HC), was invented and developed to cover the entire aspects of hydrocephalus with all considerable classification items and categories.

Materials and method

Ten categories include “Mc HC” category I: onset (age, phase), II: cause, III: underlying lesion, IV: symptomatology, V: pathophysiology 1—CSF circulation, VI: pathophysiology 2—ICP dynamics, VII: chronology, VII: post-shunt, VIII: post-endoscopic third ventriculostomy, and X: others. From a 100-year search of publication related to the classification of hydrocephalus, 14 representative publications were reviewed and divided into the 10 categories.

Results and discussion

The Baumkuchen classification graph made from the round o’clock classification demonstrated the historical tendency of deviation to the categories in pathophysiology, either CSF or ICP dynamics.


In the preliminary clinical application, it was concluded that “Mc HC” is extremely effective in expressing the individual state with various categories in the past and present condition or among the compatible cases of hydrocephalus along with the possible chronological change in the future.


Hydrocephalus Classification Neuroendoscopic surgery Shunt Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Multi-categorical Hydrocephalus Classification (Mc HC) Chronology 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Health Sciences Asia Executive Dean OfficeJapan International UniversityAmagasakiJapan

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