Advertisement

Child's Nervous System

, 27:1523 | Cite as

Classification of hydrocephalus: critical analysis of classification categories and advantages of “Multi-categorical Hydrocephalus Classification” (Mc HC)

  • Shizuo Oi
Special Annual Issue

Abstract

Objective

Hydrocephalus is a complex pathophysiology with disturbed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation. There are numerous numbers of classification trials published focusing on various criteria, such as associated anomalies/underlying lesions, CSF circulation/intracranial pressure patterns, clinical features, and other categories. However, no definitive classification exists comprehensively to cover the variety of these aspects. The new classification of hydrocephalus, “Multi-categorical Hydrocephalus Classification” (Mc HC), was invented and developed to cover the entire aspects of hydrocephalus with all considerable classification items and categories.

Materials and method

Ten categories include “Mc HC” category I: onset (age, phase), II: cause, III: underlying lesion, IV: symptomatology, V: pathophysiology 1—CSF circulation, VI: pathophysiology 2—ICP dynamics, VII: chronology, VII: post-shunt, VIII: post-endoscopic third ventriculostomy, and X: others. From a 100-year search of publication related to the classification of hydrocephalus, 14 representative publications were reviewed and divided into the 10 categories.

Results and discussion

The Baumkuchen classification graph made from the round o’clock classification demonstrated the historical tendency of deviation to the categories in pathophysiology, either CSF or ICP dynamics.

Conclusion

In the preliminary clinical application, it was concluded that “Mc HC” is extremely effective in expressing the individual state with various categories in the past and present condition or among the compatible cases of hydrocephalus along with the possible chronological change in the future.

Keywords

Hydrocephalus Classification Neuroendoscopic surgery Shunt Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Multi-categorical Hydrocephalus Classification (Mc HC) Chronology 

References

  1. 1.
    Bering EA Jr, Sato O (1963) Hydrocephalus: changes in formation and absorption of cerebrospinal fluid within the cerebral ventricles. J Neurosurg 20:1050–1063PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Dandy WE (1919) Experimental hydrocephalus. Ann Surg 70:129–142PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dandy WE, Blackfan KD (1914) Internal hydrocephalus. An experimental, clinical and pathological study. Am J Dis Child 8:406–482Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    De Feo DR, Foltz FL, Hamilton AE (1975) Double compartment hydrocephalus in a patient with cysticercosis meningitis. Surg Neurol 4:247–251Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Di Rocco C, McLone DG, Shimoji T et al (1975) Continuous intraventricular cerebrospinal fluid pressure recording in hydrocephalic children during wakefulness and sleep. J Neurosurg 42:683–689PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Guo WY, Ono S, Oi S, Shen SH, Wong TT, Ching HW, Hung JM (2006) Dynamic motion analysis of fetuses with central nervous system disorders by cine magnetic resonance imaging using fast imaging employing steady-state acquisitions and parallel imaging: a preliminary result. J Neurosurg 105(2):94–100PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hakim S, Adams RD (1965) The special clinical problem of symptomatic hydrocephalus with normal cerebrospinal fluid pressure observation on cerebrospinal fluid hydrodynamics. J Neurol Sci 2:307–327PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kaufman B, Weiss MH, Young HF et al (1973) Effects of prolonged cerebrospinal fluid shunting on the skull and brain. J Neurosurg 38:288–297PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Luedemann W, von Rantenfeld DB, Samii M, Brinker T (2004) Ultrastructure of the cerebrospinal fluid outflow along the optic nerve into the lymphatic system. Childs Nerv Syst 21(2):96–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Oi S, Matsumoto S (1985) Pathophysiology of nonneoplastic obstruction of the foramen of Monro and progressive unilateral hydrocephalus. Neurosurgery 17:891–896PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Oi S, Matsumoto S (1985) Slit ventricles as a cause of isolated ventricles after shunting. Childs Nerv Syst 1(4):189–193PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Oi S, Matsumoto S (1986) Isolated fourth ventricle. J Pediatr Neurosci 2:125–133Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Oi S, Matsumoto S (1986) Pathophysiology of aqueductal obstruction in isolated IV ventricle after shunting. Childs Nerv Syst 2:282–286PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Oi S, Matusmoto S (1986) Morphological findings of postshunt slit-ventricle in experimental canine hydrocephalus—aspects of causative factor for isolated ventricles and slit ventricle syndrome-. Childs Nerv Syst 2:179–184PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Oi S, Matsumoto S (1987) Infantile hydrocephalus and the slit ventricle syndrome in early infancy. Childs Nerv Syst 3:145–150PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Oi S, Matsumoto S, Katayama K, Mochizuki M (1990) Pathophysiology and postnatal outcome of fetal hydrocephalus. Childs Nerv Syst 6:338–345PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Oi S, Kudo H, Yamada H, Kim S, Hamano S, Urui S, Matsumoto S (1991) Hydromyelic hydrocephalus: correlation of hydromyelia with various stages of hydrocephalus in postshunt isolated compartments. J Neurosurg 74:371–379PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Oi S (1992) Is the hydrocephalic state progressive to become irreversible during fetal life? Surg Neurol 37:66–68PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Oi S, Sato S, Matsumoto S (1994) A new classification of congenital hydrocephalus: prospective classification of congenital hydrocephalous (PCCH) and postnatal prognosis. Part 1. A proposal of a new classification of fetal/neonatal//infantile hydrocephalus based on neuronal maturation process and chronological changes. Jpn J Neurosurg (Jpn) 3:122–127Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Oi S, Hidaka M, Matsuzawa K, Tominaga J, Atsumi H, Sato O (1995) Intractable hydrocephalus in a form of progressive and irreversible “hydrocephalus–parkinsonism complex”—a case report. Current Tr Hyd (Tokyo) 5:43–49Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Oi S (1996) Recent advances in neuroendoscopic surgery—realistic indications and clinical achievement. Crit Rev Neurosurg 6:64–72Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Oi S, Yamada H, Sato O, Matsumoto S (1996) Experimental models of congenital hydrocephalus and comparable clinical problems in the fetal and neonatal periods. Childs Nerv Syst 12:292–302PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Oi S, Honda Y, Hidaka M, Sato O, Matsumoto S (1998) Intrauterine high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging in fetal hydrocephalus and prenatal estimation of postnatal outcomes with “perspective classification”. J Neurosurg 88:685–694PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Oi S (1998) Hydrocephalus chronology in adults: confused state of the terminology. How should “normal-pressure hydrocephalus” be defined? Crit Rev Neurosurg 8:346–356PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Oi S, Hidaka M, Honda Y, Togo K, Shinoda M, Shimoda M, Tsugane R, Sato (1999) Neuroendoscopic surgery for specific forms of hydrocephalus. Childs Nerv Syst 15:56–68PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Oi S, Shibata M, Tominaga J, Honda Y, Shinoda M, Takei F, Tsugane R, Matsuzawa K, Sato O (2000) Efficacy of neuroendoscopic procedures in “minimally-invasive” preferential management of pineal region tumors—a prospective study. J Neurosurg 93:245–253PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Oi S, Shimoda M, Shibata M, Honda Y, Togo K, Shinoda M, Tsugane R, Sato O (2000) Pathophysiology of long-standing overt ventriculomegaly in adults (LOVA). J Neurosurg 92:933–940PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Oi S, Di Rocco C (2006) Proposal of evolution theory in cerebrospinal fluid dynamics and minor pathway hydrocephalus in developing immature brain. Childs Nerv Syst 22:662–669PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Oi S, Samii A, Samii M (2005) Frameless free-hand maneuver of a handy small rigid-rod neuroendoscope with working cannel under high-resolution imaging—technical note. J Neurosurg Pediatr 102:113–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Oi S, Enchev Y (2008) Neuroendoscopic foraminal plasty of foramen of Monro. Childs Nerv Syst 24–8:933–942CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Oi S (2010) Hydrocephalus research update—controversies in definition and classification of hydrocephalus. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo) 50:859–869CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Oi S (2010) “Oi Handy Pro” hands-on seminar neuroendoscopic surgery altas lecture. J Neuroendoscopy 1(3):11–24Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Oi S (2010) A proposal of “Multi-categorical Hydrocephalus Classification”: Mc HC—critical review in 72,576,000 patterns of hydrocephalus. J Hydrocephalus 2(1):1–21Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Osaka K, Handa H, Matsumoto S, Yasuda M (1980) Development of the cerebrospinal fluid pathway in the normal and abnormal human embryos. Childs Brain 6(1):26–38PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Pudenz RH, Russell FE, Hund AH (1957) Ventriculo-auriculostomy. A technique for shunting cerebrospinal fluid into the rigid auricle. Preliminary report. J Neurosurg 14:171–179PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Rekate HL (2009) A contemporary definition and classification of hydrocephalus. Semin Pediatr Neurol 16:9–15PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Raimondi AJ, Bailey OT, McLone DG, Lawson RF, Echeverry A (1973) The pathophysiology and morphology of murine hydrocephalus in hydrocephalus 3 and Ch mutants. Surg Neurol 1:50–55PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Raimondi AJ, Clark SJ, McLone DG (1976) Pathogenesis of aqueductal occlusion in congenital murine hydrocephalus. J Neurosurg 45:66–77PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Raimondi AJ, Samuelson G, Yarzagaray L et al (1969) Atresia of the foramina of Luschka and Magendie: the Dandy–Walker cyst. J Neurosurg 31:202–216PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Russell DS (1949) Observation on the pathology of hydrocephalus. Medical research council. Special report series no. 265. His Majesty’s Stationery Office, London, pp 112–113Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Sato O, Bering EA Jr, Yagi M, Tsugane R, Hara M, Amano Y, Asai T (1975) Bulk flow in the cerebrospinal fluid system of the dog. Acta Neurol Scand 51(1):1–11PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Weed LH (1914) Studies on cerebrospinal fluid. III. The pathways of escape from the subarachnoid spaces with particular reference to the arachnoid villi. J Med Res 31:51–91, 111–117PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Weed LH (1916) The establishment of the circulation of cerebro-spinal fluid. Anat Rec 10:256–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Health Sciences Asia Executive Dean OfficeJapan International UniversityAmagasakiJapan

Personalised recommendations