Classification of hydrocephalus: critical analysis of classification categories and advantages of “Multi-categorical Hydrocephalus Classification” (Mc HC)
- 919 Downloads
Hydrocephalus is a complex pathophysiology with disturbed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation. There are numerous numbers of classification trials published focusing on various criteria, such as associated anomalies/underlying lesions, CSF circulation/intracranial pressure patterns, clinical features, and other categories. However, no definitive classification exists comprehensively to cover the variety of these aspects. The new classification of hydrocephalus, “Multi-categorical Hydrocephalus Classification” (Mc HC), was invented and developed to cover the entire aspects of hydrocephalus with all considerable classification items and categories.
Materials and method
Ten categories include “Mc HC” category I: onset (age, phase), II: cause, III: underlying lesion, IV: symptomatology, V: pathophysiology 1—CSF circulation, VI: pathophysiology 2—ICP dynamics, VII: chronology, VII: post-shunt, VIII: post-endoscopic third ventriculostomy, and X: others. From a 100-year search of publication related to the classification of hydrocephalus, 14 representative publications were reviewed and divided into the 10 categories.
Results and discussion
The Baumkuchen classification graph made from the round o’clock classification demonstrated the historical tendency of deviation to the categories in pathophysiology, either CSF or ICP dynamics.
In the preliminary clinical application, it was concluded that “Mc HC” is extremely effective in expressing the individual state with various categories in the past and present condition or among the compatible cases of hydrocephalus along with the possible chronological change in the future.
KeywordsHydrocephalus Classification Neuroendoscopic surgery Shunt Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Multi-categorical Hydrocephalus Classification (Mc HC) Chronology
- 3.Dandy WE, Blackfan KD (1914) Internal hydrocephalus. An experimental, clinical and pathological study. Am J Dis Child 8:406–482Google Scholar
- 4.De Feo DR, Foltz FL, Hamilton AE (1975) Double compartment hydrocephalus in a patient with cysticercosis meningitis. Surg Neurol 4:247–251Google Scholar
- 6.Guo WY, Ono S, Oi S, Shen SH, Wong TT, Ching HW, Hung JM (2006) Dynamic motion analysis of fetuses with central nervous system disorders by cine magnetic resonance imaging using fast imaging employing steady-state acquisitions and parallel imaging: a preliminary result. J Neurosurg 105(2):94–100PubMedGoogle Scholar
- 12.Oi S, Matsumoto S (1986) Isolated fourth ventricle. J Pediatr Neurosci 2:125–133Google Scholar
- 19.Oi S, Sato S, Matsumoto S (1994) A new classification of congenital hydrocephalus: prospective classification of congenital hydrocephalous (PCCH) and postnatal prognosis. Part 1. A proposal of a new classification of fetal/neonatal//infantile hydrocephalus based on neuronal maturation process and chronological changes. Jpn J Neurosurg (Jpn) 3:122–127Google Scholar
- 20.Oi S, Hidaka M, Matsuzawa K, Tominaga J, Atsumi H, Sato O (1995) Intractable hydrocephalus in a form of progressive and irreversible “hydrocephalus–parkinsonism complex”—a case report. Current Tr Hyd (Tokyo) 5:43–49Google Scholar
- 21.Oi S (1996) Recent advances in neuroendoscopic surgery—realistic indications and clinical achievement. Crit Rev Neurosurg 6:64–72Google Scholar
- 32.Oi S (2010) “Oi Handy Pro” hands-on seminar neuroendoscopic surgery altas lecture. J Neuroendoscopy 1(3):11–24Google Scholar
- 33.Oi S (2010) A proposal of “Multi-categorical Hydrocephalus Classification”: Mc HC—critical review in 72,576,000 patterns of hydrocephalus. J Hydrocephalus 2(1):1–21Google Scholar
- 40.Russell DS (1949) Observation on the pathology of hydrocephalus. Medical research council. Special report series no. 265. His Majesty’s Stationery Office, London, pp 112–113Google Scholar