Child's Nervous System

, Volume 24, Issue 4, pp 417–422 | Cite as

The intriguing history of the human calvaria: sinister and religious

  • R. Shane TubbsEmail author
  • Marios Loukas
  • Mohammadali M. Shoja
  • Nihal Apaydin
  • E. George Salter
  • W. Jerry Oakes
Invited Paper



A review of the ancient world finds multiple documentations describing the use of the human calvaria as a drinking implement.


This term, which is frequently and incorrectly called the “calvarium,” has a unique history among multiple cultures of the world. For example, the purported site of Jesus’ crucifixion “Calvary” is derived from this term calvaria. The present report explores the derivation, misuse, and history of the human calvaria.


Historical Anatomy Skull Cranium Skull cap 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Shane Tubbs
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Marios Loukas
    • 3
  • Mohammadali M. Shoja
    • 4
  • Nihal Apaydin
    • 5
  • E. George Salter
    • 2
  • W. Jerry Oakes
    • 1
  1. 1.Section of Pediatric NeurosurgeryChildren’s HospitalBirminghamUSA
  2. 2.Department of Cell BiologyUniversity of Alabama at BirminghamBirminghamUSA
  3. 3.Department of Anatomical SciencesSt. George’s UniversitySt. George’sGrenada
  4. 4.Tuberculosis and Lung Disease InstituteTabriz Medical UniversityTabrizIran
  5. 5.Department of AnatomyAnkara University School of MedicineAnkaraTurkey

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