Surgically amenable epilepsies in children and adolescents: clinical, imaging, electrophysiological, and post-surgical outcome data
Background and purpose
A large number of patients with epilepsy in the pediatric population have medically intractable epilepsy. In this age group seizures are usually daily or weekly, and response to antiepileptic therapy is poor, especially for those with neurological abnormalities and symptomatic epilepsies. However, several authors have already demonstrated similarly favorable long-term post-surgical seizure control when comparing pediatric and adult populations. In this article we aim to report the experience of the Ribeirão Preto Epilepsy Surgery Program in pediatric epilepsy surgery.
Patients and methods
We analyzed 107 patients with medically intractable epilepsy operated on between July 1994 and December 2002, considering age at surgery, seizure type, pathological findings, and seizure outcome. All data were prospectively collected according to protocols previously approved by the institution ethics committee.
We analyzed a total of 115 operations performed in 107 patients. There was no difference in sex distribution. Complex partial seizures occurred in 31.4% of the patients, followed by tonic seizures (25.9%), focal motor seizures (15.4%), and infantile spasms (13.3%). The most common etiologies were cortical developmental abnormalities (25.2%), tumors (16.8%), mesial temporal sclerosis (15.9%), Rasmussen syndrome (6.5%), and tuberous sclerosis (6.5%). Overall post-surgical seizure outcome showed 67.2% of the patients within Engel classes I and II, reaching 75.0% when patients with callosotomies were excluded.
Post-surgical seizure control in the pediatric population is similar to that in adult patients, despite the fact that epilepsies in this age group are more frequently of extratemporal origin, suggesting that surgery should be considered in children as soon as intractability is determined.
KeywordsIntractable epilepsy Pediatric epilepsy Epilepsy surgery
The authors thank the fellows, residents, and staff of the Epilepsy Center and Video-EEG Monitoring Unit of the Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, USP. This work was supported by CNPq, FAPESP, and FAEPA.
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