Advertisement

Child's Nervous System

, Volume 19, Issue 7–8, pp 490–500 | Cite as

MR imaging of acquired fetal brain disorders

  • Nadine GirardEmail author
  • Catherine Gire
  • Sabine Sigaudy
  • Géraldine Porcu
  • Claude d'Ercole
  • Dominique Figarella-Branger
  • Charles Raybaud
  • Sylviane Confort-Gouny
Original Paper

Abstract

Introduction

Acquired fetal brain disorders represent the third indication of fetal brain MRI, after ventricular dilatation and malformations of the central nervous system.

Discussion

MRI is an adequate imaging technique for evaluating fetal brain damage. Fetal brain response to brain injury may be acute, chronic or a combination of acute and chronic. An acute response is not as common in the fetal brain as in the postnatal period. A chronic response or the combination of chronic and acute response are the most common responses of the fetal brain to injury, whatever its origin. MRI also provides the natural history of acquired fetal brain lesions with regard to the stage of development.

Keywords

Brain injury Fetal brain MRI 

References

  1. 1.
    Baethmann M, Kahn T, Lenard H-G, Voit T (1996) Fetal CNS damage after exposure to maternal trauma during pregnancy. Acta Paediatr 85:1331–1338PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Barkovich AJ (2000) Pediatric neuroimaging, 3rd edn. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Baud O, Ville Y, Zupan V, Boithias C, Lacaze-Masmonteil T, Gabilan JC, Frydman R, Dehan M (1998) Are neonatal brain lesions due to intrauterine infection related to mode of delivery? Br J Obstet Gynaecol 105:121–124Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Baud O, Foix-L'Helias L, Kaminski M, Audibert F, Jarreau P-H, Papiernik E, Huon C, Lepercq J, Dehan M, Lacaze-Masmonteil T (1999) Antenatal glucocorticoid treatment and cystic periventricular leukomalacia in very premature infants. N Engl J Med 341:1190–1196CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bloom SL, Bloom DH, Dellanebia C, Martin LB, Lucas MJ, Twickler DM (1997) The developmental outcome of children with antenatal mild isolated ventriculomegaly. Obstet Gynecol 90:93–97PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Boubred F, Tauzin L, Derhi SS, Ramella F, Lacroze V, Millet V, Girard N, Siméoni U (2002) Brain injury after premature rupture of membranes: magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings at 4 months corrected postnatal age. Pediatr Res 51:439–440Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Burguet A, Monnet E, Pauchard JY, Roth P, Fromentin C, Dalphin ML, Allemand H, Maillet R, Menget A (1999) Some risk factors for cerebral palsy in very premature infants: importance of premature rupture of membranes and monochorionic twin placentation. Biol Neonate 75:177–186CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bydder GM, Rutherford MA, Cowan FM (2001) Diffusion-weighted imaging in neonates. Childs Nerv Syst 17:190–194CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Damman O, Leviton A (1997) Maternal intrauterine infection, cytokines, and brain damage in the preterm newborn. Pediatr Res 42:1–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Damman O, Leviton A (1998) Infection remote from the brain, neonatal white matter damage, and cerebral palsy in the preterm infant. Semin Pediatr Neurol 5:190–201PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    De Laveaucoupet J, Audibert F, Guis F, Rambaud C, Suarez B, Boithias-Guérot C, Musset D (2001) Fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of ischemic brain injury. Prenat Diagn 21:729–736CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Felderhoff-Mueser U, Rutherford MA, Squier WV, Cox P, Maalouf EF, Counsell SJ, Bydder GM, Edwards AD (1999) Relationship between MR imaging and histopathologic findings of the brain in extremely sick preterm infants. Am J Neuroradiol 20:1349–1357PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Folkerth RD, McLaughlin ME, Levine D (2001) Organizing posterior fossa hematomas simulating developmental cysts on prenatal imaging. J Ultrasound Med 20:1233–1240PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ghidini A, Salafia CM, Kirn V, Doria V, Spong CY (2000) Biophysical profile in predicting acute ascending infection in preterm rupture of membranes before 32 weeks. Obstet Gynecol 96:201–206CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Girard NJ, Raybaud CA (1992) In vivo MRI of fetal brain cellular migration. J Comput Assist Tomogr 16:265–267PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Girard N, Millet V, Raybaud C (2000) MRI assessment of prognosis in neonatal disorders (abstract). Childs Nerv Syst 16:52Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Girard N, Raybaud C, Gambarelli D (2001) Pediatric neuroimaging: fetal MR imaging. In: Demaerel P (ed) Recent advances in diagnostic neuroradiology. Springer, Berlin, pp 373–398Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Girard N, Raybaud C, Gambarelli D, Figarella-Branger D (2001) Fetal brain MR imaging. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am 9:19–56PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Girard NJ, Raybaud CA (2001) Ventriculomegaly and pericerebral CSF collection in the fetus: early stage of benign external hydrocephalus? Childs Nerv Syst 17:239–245Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Girard N (2002) Fetal MR imaging. Eur Radiol 12:1869–1871PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Girard N, Gambarelli D (2001) Normal fetal brain. Magnetic resonance imaging. An atlas with anatomic correlations. Brunelle and Shaw, RickmansworthGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Girard N, Gire C, Mancini J, Millet V, Lethel V, Sigaudy S, D'Ercole C, Chau C, Potier A, Cournelle M, Livet MO (2002) Ventriculomegaly. J Neuroradiol 29 [Suppl]:8Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gire C, Girard N, Nicaise C, Einaudi MA, Montfort MF, Dejode JM (2002) Clinical features and neuroradiological findings of mitochondrial pathology in six neonates. Childs Nerv Syst 18:621–628CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Guo W-Y, Chang C-Y, Ho DMT, Wong T-T, Sheu M-H, Cheng H-C, Chen S-J, Hung J-H (2001) A comparative MR and pathological study on fetal CNS disorders. Childs Nerv Syst 17:512–518CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Haverkamp F, Lex C, Hanisch C, Fahnenstich H, Zerres K (2001) Neurodevelopmental risks in twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome: preliminary findings. Eur J Paediatr Neurol 5:21–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Heerschap A, van den Berg PP (1994) Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of human fetal brain. Am J Obstet Gynecol 170:1150–1151PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Inder TE, Volpe JJ (2000) Mechanisms of perinatal brain injury. Semin Neonatal 5:3–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    James D (2002) Assessing fetal health. Current Obstet Gynaecol 12:243–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kok RD, van den Bergh AJ, Heerschap A, Nijland R, van den Berg PP (2001) Metabolic information from the human fetal brain obtained with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 185:1011–1015CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kok RD, van den Berg PP, van den Bergh AJ, Nijland R, Heerschap A (2002) Maturation of the human fetal brain as observed by 1H MR spectroscopy. Magn Reson Med 48:611–616CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Larroche (1977) Developmental pathology of the neonate. Elsevier/North-Holland Biomedical Press, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Liu AY, Zimmerman RA, Haselgrove JC, Bilaniuk LT, Hunter JV (2001) Diffusion-weighted imaging in the evaluation of watershed hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in pediatric patients. Neuroradiology 43:918–926CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Merzoug V, Ferey S, André C, Gelot A, Adamsbaum C (2002) Magnetic resonance imaging of the fetal brain. J Neuroradiol 29:76–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Munnich A, Rotig A, Chretien D, Saudubray JM, Cormier V, Rustin P (1996) Clinical presentation and laboratory investigations in respiratory chain deficiency. Eur J Pediatr 155:262–264PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Nicolini U, Poblete A (1999) Single intrauterine death in monochorionic twin pregnancies. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 14:297–301CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Pavlova NG, Konstantinova NN, Arutjunyan AV (1999) Functional and biochemical criteria for investigation of brain development disorders. Int J Dev Neurosci 17:839–848CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Sarnat HB (1995) Ependymal reactions to injury. A review. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 54:1–15PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Seyam YS, Al-Mahmeid MS, Al-Tamimi HK (2002) Umbilical artery doppler flow velocimetry in intrauterine growth restriction and its relation to perinatal outcome. Int J Gynecol Obstet 77:131–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Sonigo PC, Rypens FF, Carteret M, Delezoide AL, Brunelle FO (1998) MR imaging of fetal cerebral anomalies. Pediatr Radiol 28:212–222CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Spinillo A, Capuzzo E, Stronati M, Ometto A, Orcesi S, Fazzi E (1995) Effect of preterm premature rupture of membranes on neurodevelopmental outcome: follow up at two years of age. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 102:882–887PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Stehling MK, Mansfield P, Ordidge RJ, Coxon R, Chapman B, Blamire A, Gibbs P, Johnson IR, Symonds EM, Worthington BS, Coupland RE (1990) Echo-planar imaging of the human fetus in utero. Magn Reson Med 13:314–318PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Volpe JJ (1997) Brain injury in the premature infant—from pathogenesis to prevention. Brain Dev 19:519–534Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Zelop CM, Richardson DK, Heffner LJ (1996) Outcomes of severely abnormal umbilical artery doppler velocimetry in structurally normal singleton fetuses. Obstet Gynecol 87:434–438CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Zupan V, Gonzalez P, Lacaze-Masmonteil T, Boithias C, D'Allest AM, Dehan M, Gabilan JC (1996) Periventricular leukomalacia risk factors revisited. Dev Med Child Neurol 38:1061–1067PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nadine Girard
    • 1
    Email author
  • Catherine Gire
    • 2
  • Sabine Sigaudy
    • 3
  • Géraldine Porcu
    • 4
  • Claude d'Ercole
    • 5
  • Dominique Figarella-Branger
    • 6
  • Charles Raybaud
    • 7
  • Sylviane Confort-Gouny
    • 8
  1. 1.Department of RadiologyAP-HM Nord, Université de la MéditerranéeMarseille Cedex 20France
  2. 2.Department of NeonatologyAP-HM Nord, Université de la MéditerranéeMarseille Cedex 20France
  3. 3.Department of GeneticsAP-HM Timone, Université de la MéditerranéeMarseille Cedex 20France
  4. 4.Department of Obstetrics-GynecologyAP-HM Conception, Université de la MéditerranéeMarseilleFrance
  5. 5.Department of Obstetrics-GynecologyAP-HM Nord, Université de la MéditerranéeMarseille Cedex 20France
  6. 6.Department of PathologyAP-HM Timone, Université de la MéditerranéeMarseilleFrance
  7. 7.Department of NeuroradiologyAP-HM Timone, Université de la MéditerranéeMarseilleFrance
  8. 8.Centre de Résonance Biologique et Médicale, UMR-CNRS 6612Faculté de MédicineMarseilleFrance

Personalised recommendations