Myocardial T1 values in healthy volunteers measured with saturation method using adaptive recovery times for T1 mapping (SMART1Map) at 1.5 T and 3 T
Myocardial T1 mapping is clinically valuable for assessing the myocardium, and modified look-locker inversion-recovery (MOLLI) approaches have been commonly used for measuring myocardial T1 values. To date, several other sequences have been developed for measuring myocardial T1 values, and saturation-recovery-based sequences have been shown to be less dependent on various factors, such as T2 times and magnetization transfer, than inversion-recovery techniques. Systematic differences in T1 values between different sequences have been reported; therefore, definition of the normal range of native T1 values is required before clinical usage can begin. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reference range and sex dependency of native T1 values in the myocardium measured using one such saturation-recovery sequence, i.e., saturation method using adaptive recovery times for cardiac T1 mapping (SMART1Map). Myocardial T1 values were compared between SMART1Map and MOLLI in 24 young healthy volunteers at 1.5 T and 3 T, and differences in the T1 values between the sexes were assessed. The mean native T1 values in the myocardium were significantly longer with SMART1Map than MOLLI [1530.4 ± 49.2 vs 1222.1 ± 48.9 ms at 3 T (p < 0.001) and 1227.3 ± 41.9 ms vs 1014.8 ± 49.4 ms at 1.5 T (p < 0.001)]. A significant difference between the sexes was observed in the T1 values obtained using each sequence, excluding SMART1Map at 3 T. The SMART1Map has a potential advantage to overcome the shortcoming of MOLLI, which underestimates T1 values; however, the sex-dependent difference remains obscure using SMART1Map.
KeywordsMyocardium Magnetic resonance imaging T1 mapping Saturation recovery
We would like to thank Dr. Glenn S Slavin for developing and providing the SMART1Map sequence. This study was funded by GE Healthcare (11781177532).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
GE Healthcare provided a grant for conducting the volunteer study. One author (AN) is an employee of GEHC Japan. His role in this study was limited to preparing the sequence. The funder had no role in the study design, data collection, data analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
- 6.Slavin GS, Food MN, Ho VB, Stainsby JA (2012) Breath-held myocardial T1 mapping using multiple single-point saturation recovery. Proceedings of the 20st Scientific Meeting of ISMRM, Salt Lake City, p 1244Google Scholar
- 8.Deichmann R, Haase A (1992) Quantification of T1 values by SNAPSHOT-FLASH NMR imaging. J Magn Reson Imaging 96:608–612Google Scholar
- 11.Dabir D, Child N, Kalra A, Rogers T, Gebker R, Jabbour A, Plein S, Yu CY, Otton J, Kidambi A, McDiarmid A, Broadbent D, Higgins DM, Schnackenburg B, Foote L, Cummins C, Nagel E, Puntmann VO (2014) Reference values for healthy human myocardium using a T1 mapping methodology: results from the International T1 Multicenter cardiovascular magnetic resonance study. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson 16:69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 21.Oda S, Utsunomiya D, Morita K, Nakaura T, Yuki H, Kidoh M, Hirata K, Taguchi N, Tsuda N, Shiraishi S, Namimoto T, Hirakawa K, Takashio S, Izumiya Y, Yamamuro M, Hokimoto S, Tsujita K, Ueda M, Yamashita T, Ando Y, Yamashita Y (2017) Cardiovascular magnetic resonance myocardial T1 mapping to detect and quantify cardiac involvement in familial amyloid polyneuropathy. Eur Radiol 27:4631–4638CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 22.Morita K, Oda S, Utsunomiya D, Nakaura T, Matsubara T, Goto M, Okuaki T, Yuki H, Nagayama Y, Kidoh M, Hirata K, Iyama Y, Taguchi N, Hatemura M, Hashida M, Yamashita Y (2018) Saturation recovery myocardial T1 mapping with a composite radiofrequency pulse on a 3 T MR imaging system. Magn Reson Med Sci 17:35–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 23.Liu CY, Liu YC, Wu C, Armstrong A, Volpe GJ, van der Geest RJ, Liu Y, Hundley WG, Gomes AS, Liu S, Nacif M, Bluemke DA, Lima JAC (2013) Evaluation of age-related interstitial myocardial fibrosis with cardiac magnetic resonance contrast-enhanced T1 mapping: MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis). J Am Coll Cardiol 62:1280–1287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 25.Rosmini S, Bulluck H, Captur G, Treibel TA, Abdel-Gadir A, Bhuva AN, Culotta V, Merghani A, Fontana M, Maestrini V, Herrey AS, Chow K, Thompson RB, Piechnik SK, Kellman P, Manisty C, Moon JC (2018) Myocardial native T1 and extracellular volume with healthy ageing and gender. Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging 19:615–621CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 26.Pagano JJ, Chow K, Paterson DI, Mikami Y, Schmidt A, Howarth A, White J, Friedrich MG, Oudit GY, Ezekowitz J, Dyck J, Thompson RB (2018) Effects of age, gender, and risk-factors for heart failure on native myocardial T1 and extracellular volume fraction using the SASHA sequence at 1.5 T. J Magn Reson Imaging 48:1307–1317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 27.Piechnik SK, Ferreira VM, Lewandowski AJ, Ntusi NA, Banerjee R, Holloway C, Hofman MB, Sado DM, Maestrini V, White SK, Lazdam M, Karamitsos T, Moon JC, Neubauer S, Leeson P, Robson MD (2013) Normal variation of magnetic resonance T1 relaxation times in the human population at 1.5 T using ShMOLLI. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson 15:13CrossRefGoogle Scholar