Atrial septal defect and patent foramen ovale: early and long-term effects on endothelial function after percutaneous occlusion procedure
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Percutaneous closure of atrial septal defect (ASD)/patent foramen ovale (PFO) can influence systemic hemodynamics. The aim of this research was to evaluate the influence of the closure procedure on morphological and functional characteristics of systemic vascular walls. Fourteen ASD (mean age 40 ± 16 years) and 14 PFO (45 ± 8 years) patients were enrolled in this retrospective study. All underwent percutaneous closure procedure; physical, clinical and biochemical evaluations; echocardiography; carotid evaluation; and brachial artery flow-mediated vasodilatation (FMD). All the evaluations were performed at the time of enrollment, 24 h post-procedure, at 1–6–12-month follow-up. FMD at enrollment was higher in PFO patients as compared to ASD (8.5% [7.6–10.7%] versus 6.5% [5.6–7.6%], p < 0.0001). FMD values in ASD patients significantly increased during follow-up (enrollment: 6.5% [5.6–7.6%], 12-month follow-up: 8.8% [7.2–10.3%], p < 0.01). PFO patients showed reduced FMD values 24 h after the procedure (enrollment: 8.5% [7.6–10.7%], 24 h post-procedure: 7% [6.3–9%], p < 0.001), while recovering endothelial function during follow-up period to baseline values (FMD at 12-month follow-up: 8.2% [7.6–10.5%]). At one-year follow-up, FMD remained inversely related to systolic pulmonary arterial pressure and right and left atrial/ventricle chambers dimensions (RV proximal diameter efflux tract, right atrium [RA] longitudinal diameter, RA transverse diameter, RA area, left ventricle [LV] end-diastolic diameter, left atrium [LA] anteroposterior diameter, LA area; p < 0.01) in ASD patients. Endothelial function improved after percutaneous closure of ASD, while remaining stable after PFO closure. Therefore, ASD patients seem to improve their cardiovascular risk profile after percutaneous closure of their defect.
KeywordsAtrial septal defect Patent foramen ovale Percutaneous closure procedure Endothelial function
This research received no grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.
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