Seasonal variations in cardiac implantable electronic device infections
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Infections of cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) have increased over the past decade. However, the impact of the climate on CIED infections is unknown. To determine whether there is a seasonal variation in CIED infections. In this single-center observational study, retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data was performed. Timone Hospital in Marseille (south-east France) is a tertiary care institution and the regional reference center for management of CIED infections. All consecutive patients with CIED extractions for infectious reasons were included over a 12-year period. We noted the mean temperature (°C), precipitation (mm) and the incidence of CIED infections over this period. Among 612 patients [mean (standard deviation) age, 72.4 (13.0) years; 74.0% male], 238 had endocarditis alone (38.9%), 249 had pocket infection alone (40.7%), and 125 had both (20.4%). We found bacterial documentation in 428 patients (70.0%), commensal in 245 (40.0%). The incidence of CIED infections was positively associated with high temperature (regression coefficient = 0.075; P = 0.01) and precipitation (regression coefficient = 0.022; P < 0.01). Seasonal variation was specific of pocket infections, whether they were associated with endocarditis or not. Subgroups with infection seasonality were: women, elderly people (> 75 years), late CIED infection and skin commensal bacterial infections. We found a seasonal variation in pocket infections, whether associated with endocarditis or not. Infections were associated with elevated temperatures and precipitation. Therefore, specific prevention strategy should be discussed in high-risk patients.
KeywordsCardiac electronic implantable devices Infection Endocarditis Climate
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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