Heart and Vessels

, Volume 32, Issue 12, pp 1458–1468 | Cite as

Perioperative depression or anxiety and postoperative mortality in cardiac surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis

  • Hisato TakagiEmail author
  • Tomo Ando
  • Takuya Umemoto
  • ALICE (All-Literature Investigation of Cardiovascular Evidence) Group
Original Article


We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine whether perioperative depression and anxiety are associated with increased postoperative mortality in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched through January 2017 using PubMed and OVID, to identify observational studies enrolling patients undergoing cardiac surgery and reporting relative risk estimates (RREs) (including odds, hazard, or mortality ratios) of short term (30 days or in-hospital) and/or late all-cause mortality for patients with versus without perioperative depression or anxiety. Study-specific estimates were combined using inverse variance-weighted averages of logarithmic RREs in the random-effects models. Our search identified 16 eligible studies. In total, the present meta-analysis included data on 236,595 patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Pooled analysis demonstrated that perioperative depression was significantly associated with increased both postoperative early (RRE, 1.44; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01–2.05; p = 0.05) and late mortality (RRE, 1.44; 95% CI 1.24–1.67; p < 0.0001), and that perioperative anxiety significantly correlated with increased postoperative late mortality (RRE, 1.81; 95% CI 1.20–2.72; p = 0.004). The relation between anxiety and early mortality was reported in only one study and not statistically significant. In the association of depression with late mortality, there was no evidence of significant publication bias and meta-regression indicated that the effects of depression are not modulated by the duration of follow-up. In conclusion, perioperative depression and anxiety may be associated with increased postoperative mortality in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.


Anxiety Cardiac surgery Depression Meta-analysis Mortality 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

None of the authors declare any potential conflict of interest.

Research involving human participants and/or animals

The present study is a meta-analysis of published articles, and neither a human nor animal study that should be approved by the appropriate ethics committee and performed in accordance with the ethical standards laid down in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments.

Informed consent

The present study is a meta-analysis of published articles, and accordingly, there are no persons who gave their informed consent prior to their inclusion in the study.

Supplementary material

380_2017_1022_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (2 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 2005 kb)
380_2017_1022_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (67 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (PDF 67 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Japan KK 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hisato Takagi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Tomo Ando
    • 2
  • Takuya Umemoto
    • 1
  • ALICE (All-Literature Investigation of Cardiovascular Evidence) Group
  1. 1.Department of Cardiovascular SurgeryShizuoka Medical CenterShizuokaJapan
  2. 2.Department of CardiologyDetroit Medical CenterDetroitUSA

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