Advances in Atmospheric Sciences

, Volume 36, Issue 10, pp 1156–1170 | Cite as

A Model Output Machine Learning Method for Grid Temperature Forecasts in the Beijing Area

  • Haochen Li
  • Chen Yu
  • Jiangjiang Xia
  • Yingchun Wang
  • Jiang Zhu
  • Pingwen ZhangEmail author
Original Paper


In this paper, the model output machine learning (MOML) method is proposed for simulating weather consultation, which can improve the forecast results of numerical weather prediction (NWP). During weather consultation, the forecasters obtain the final results by combining the observations with the NWP results and giving opinions based on their experience. It is obvious that using a suitable post-processing algorithm for simulating weather consultation is an interesting and important topic. MOML is a post-processing method based on machine learning, which matches NWP forecasts against observations through a regression function. By adopting different feature engineering of datasets and training periods, the observational and model data can be processed into the corresponding training set and test set. The MOML regression function uses an existing machine learning algorithm with the processed dataset to revise the output of NWP models combined with the observations, so as to improve the results of weather forecasts. To test the new approach for grid temperature forecasts, the 2-m surface air temperature in the Beijing area from the ECMWF model is used. MOML with different feature engineering is compared against the ECMWF model and modified model output statistics (MOS) method. MOML shows a better numerical performance than the ECMWF model and MOS, especially for winter. The results of MOML with a linear algorithm, running training period, and dataset using spatial interpolation ideas, are better than others when the forecast time is within a few days. The results of MOML with the Random Forest algorithm, year-round training period, and dataset containing surrounding gridpoint information, are better when the forecast time is longer.

Key words

temperature forecasts MOS machine learning multiple linear regression Random Forest weather onsultation feature engineering data structures 


数值天气预报的预报结果可以通过天气会商来进行提高, 本文提出了模式输出机器学习(MOML)方法对天气会商过程进行模拟, 从而提高数值预报结果. 通过天气会商, 预报员利用预报经验知识结合数值预报结果和观测数据得到最终的天气预报结果. 显然, 利用合适的模式后处理算法模拟预报员天气会商的过程是一个有趣和重要的课题. MOML方法是一个基于机器学习的模式后处理方法, 它通过一个回归函数将数值预报结果跟观测数据进行配置. 对数据集和训练期采用不同的特征工程技术, 我们把观测数据和模式数据处理为不同的训练集和测试集, 之后再将已有的机器学习回归算法应用到处理后的数据集中, 从而提高模式结果. 我们把这个方法应用到北京地区2米格点地表气温的ECMWF模式后处理中来进行检验. 我们设计了各种特征工程方案, 得到了不同的MOML算法模型, 并和ECMWF模式结果以及模式输出统计(MOS)方法进行比较. 数值结果表明, MOML方法的结果比ECMWF模式结果和MOS方法更好, 尤其是冬季更明显. 其中最好的MOML特征工程混合方案是短期预报用线性回归, 滑动训练器和基于空间插值思想的数据集的组合, 中期预报用随机森林, 全年训练器和包含周围格点的数据集的组合.


温度预报 MOS 机器学习 多元线性回归 随机森林 天气会商 特征工程 数据结构 


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The authors would like to express sincere gratitude to Lizhi WANG, Quande SUN and Xiaolei MEN for unpublished data; Zongyu FU and Yingxin ZHANG for professional guidance; and Zhongwei YAN and Fan FENG for critical suggestions. This work is supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (Grant Nos. 2018YFF0300104 and 2017YFC0209804) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11421101) and Beijing Academy of Artifical Intelligence (BAAI).


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Copyright information

© Institute of Atmospheric Physics/Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Science Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Haochen Li
    • 1
    • 4
  • Chen Yu
    • 1
  • Jiangjiang Xia
    • 2
  • Yingchun Wang
    • 3
  • Jiang Zhu
    • 2
  • Pingwen Zhang
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.School of Mathematical SciencesPeking UniversityBeijingChina
  2. 2.Institute of Atmospheric Physics Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  3. 3.Beijing Meteorological ServiceBeijingChina
  4. 4.School of ScienceBeijing University of Posts and TelecommunicationsBeijingChina

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