Advertisement

Advances in Atmospheric Sciences

, Volume 36, Issue 9, pp 922–937 | Cite as

Progress in Semi-arid Climate Change Studies in China

  • Jianping HuangEmail author
  • Jieru Ma
  • Xiaodan Guan
  • Yue Li
  • Yongli He
Review
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. National Report to the IUGG Centennial by CNC-IAMAS (2011–2018)

Abstract

This article reviews recent progress in semi-arid climate change research in China. Results indicate that the areas of semi-arid regions have increased rapidly during recent years in China, with an increase of 33% during 1994–2008 compared to 1948–62. Studies have found that the expansion rate of semi-arid areas over China is nearly 10 times higher than that of arid and sub-humid areas, and is mainly transformed from sub-humid/humid regions. Meanwhile, the greatest warming during the past 100 years has been observed over semi-arid regions in China, and mainly induced by radiatively forced processes. The intensity of the regional temperature response over semi-arid regions has been amplified by land-atmosphere interactions and human activities. The decadal climate variation in semi-arid regions is modulated by oceanic oscillations, which induce land-sea and north-south thermal contrasts and affect the intensities of westerlies, planetary waves and blocking frequencies. In addition, the drier climates in semi-arid regions across China are also associated with the weakened East Asian summer monsoon in recent years. Moreover, dust aerosols in semi-arid regions may have altered precipitation by affecting the local energy and hydrological cycles. Finally, semi-arid regions in China are projected to continuously expand in the 21st century, which will increase the risk of desertification in the near future.

Key words

semi-arid regions drying expansion warming dynamics 

摘要

本文回顾了中国半干旱气候变化的最新研究进展.以往研究表明,近些年我国半干旱区面积显著增长,相对于1948-1962年,1994-2008年其面积增长了33%.研究发现我国半干旱区的扩张速度是干旱和半湿润地区的近10倍,其扩张主要由半湿润、湿润区转干而来.同时,近100年我国半干旱区出现了强化增温,主要由辐射强迫过程引起.陆-气相互作用和人类活动放大了半干旱区局地温度响应强度.而海-气相互作用通过改变海-陆和南-北热力差异,进而影响西风带、行星波和阻塞频率的强度,从而调制半干旱区年代际尺度的气候变化.此外,近些年我国半干旱区的气候变干与东亚夏季风减弱有关.此外,半干旱区的沙尘气溶胶也能通过影响局地能量和水循环从而改变降水.最后,我国半干旱区将在21世纪持续扩张,这将增加未来沙漠化的风险.

关键词

半干旱区 干旱化 扩张 强化增温 动力学 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the National Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 41521004, 41722502 and 91637312) and the China University Research Talents Recruitment Program (111 project, B13045). All of the data in this article were from the cited references.

References

  1. Albrecht, B. A., 1989: Aerosols, cloud microphysics, and fractional cloudiness. Science, 245(4923), 1227–1230,  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.245.4923.1227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. An, L. J., F. M. Ren, Y. J. Li, and Y. P. Li, 2014: Study on characteristics of regional drought events over north China during the past 50 years. Meteorological Monthly, 40, 1097–1105,  https://doi.org/10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2014.09.007. (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  3. An, S. Q., and J. X. Xing, 1986: A modified Palmer’s Drought Index. J. Acad. Meteorol. Sci. China, 1, 75–82. (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  4. Berg, A., and Coauthors, 2016: Land-atmosphere feedbacks amplify aridity increase over land under global warming. Nat. Clim. Chang, 6, 869–874,  https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate3029.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bi, J. R., J. P. Huang, Q. Fu, X. Wang, J. S. Shi, W. Zhang, Z. W. Huang, and B. D. Zhang, 2011: Toward characterization of the aerosol optical properties over Loess Plateau of northwestern China. Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer, 112, 346–360,  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jqsrt.2010.09.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Charney, J. G., 1975: Dynamics of deserts and drought in the Sahel. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 101, 193–202,  https://doi.org/10.1016/qj.49710142802.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chen, F., J. S. Wang, L. Y. Jin, Q. Zhang, J. Li, and J. H. Chen, 2009: Rapid warming in mid-latitude central Asia for the past 100 years. Frontiers of Earth Science in China, 3(1), 42–50,  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11707-009-0013-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chen, F. H., W. Huang, L. Y. Jin, J. H. Chen, and J. S. Wang, 2011: Spatiotemporal precipitation variations in the arid Central Asia in the context of global warming. Science China Earth Sciences, 54(12), 1812–1821,  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11430-011-4333-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chen, L., Z. G. Ma, and T. B. Zhao, 2017: Modeling and analysis of the potential impacts on regional climate due to vegetation degradation over arid and semi-arid regions of China. Climatic Change, 144, 461–173,  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-016-1847-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chen, S. Y., J. P. Huang, C. Zhao, Y. Qian, L. R. Leung, and B. Yang, 2013: Modeling the transport and radiative forcing of Taklimakan dust over the Tibetan Plateau: A case study in the summer of 2006. J. Geophys. Res., 118(2), 797–812,  https://doi.org/10.1002/jgrd.50122.Google Scholar
  11. Cheng, S. J., X. D. Guan, J. P. Huang, F. Ji, and R. X. Guo, 2015: Long-term trend and variability of soil moisture over East Asia. J. Geophys. Res., 120, 8658–8670,  https://doi.org/10.1002/2015JD023206.Google Scholar
  12. Cheng, S. J., and J. P. Huang, 2016: Enhanced soil moisture drying in transitional regions under a warming climate. J. Geophys. Res., 121, 2542–2555,  https://doi.org/10.1002/2015JD024559.Google Scholar
  13. Chou, C., J. D. Neelin, C. A. Chen, and J. Y. Tu, 2009: Evaluating the “rich-get-richer” mechanism in tropical precipitation change under global warming. J. Climate, 22(8), 1982–2005,  https://doi.org/10.1175/2008JCLI247L1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dai, A. G., 2013: Increasing drought under global warming in observations and models. Nat. Clim. Chang., 3(1), 52–58,  https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate1633.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dai, A. G., and T. B. Zhao, 2017: Uncertainties in historical changes and future projections of drought. Part I: estimates of historical drought changes. Climatic Change, 144, 519–533,  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-016-1705-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dai, A. G., K. E. Trenberth, and T. T. Qian, 2004: A global dataset of Palmer Drought Severity Index for 1870–2002: Relationship with soil moisture and effects of surface warming. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 5(6), 1117–1130,  https://doi.org/10.1175/JHM-386.1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Deng, X. Z., C. H. Zhao, and H. M. Yan, 2013: Systematic modeling of impacts of land use and land cover changes on regional climate: A review. Advances in Meteorology, 2013, 317678,  https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/317678.Google Scholar
  18. Dong, B., and A. G. Dai, 2015: The influence of the interdecadal Pacific Oscillation on temperature and precipitation over the globe. Climate Dyn., 45, 2667–2681,  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-015-2500-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Donohue, R. J., T. R. McVicar, and M. L. Roderick, 2010: Assessing the ability of potential evaporation formulations to capture the dynamics in evaporative demand within a changing climate. J. Hydrol., 386, 186–197,  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2010.03.020.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Duan, A. M., and Z. X. Xiao, 2015: Does the climate warming hiatus exist over the Tibetan Plateau?. Scientific Reports, 5, 13711,  https://doi.org/10.1038/srep13711.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Duan, A. M., R. Z. Sun, and J. H. He, 2017: Impact of surface sensible heating over the Tibetan Plateau on the western Pacific subtropical high: A land-air-sea interaction perspective. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 34(2), 157–168,  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00376-016-6008-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Feng, S., and Q. Fu, 2013: Expansion of global drylands under a warming climate. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 13(19), 10081–10094,  https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-13-10081-2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Fu, C., and H. Wei, 1993: Study on sensitivity of meso-scale model in response to land cover classification over China. EOS, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, 74, 172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Fu, C. B., 1994: Studies on the observed abrupt climatic change. Scientia Atmospherica Sinica, 18(3), 373–384,  https://doi.org/10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1994.03.14. (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  25. Fu, C. B., and G. Wen, 2002: Several issues on aridification in the northern China. Climatic and Environmental Research, 7(1), 22–29,  https://doi.org/10.3878/j.issn.1006-9585.2002.01.03. (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  26. Fu, C. B., and Z. G. Ma, 2008: Global change and regional aridification. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences, 32(4), 752–760,  https://doi.org/10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2008.04.05. (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  27. Fu, Q., and S. Feng, 2014: Responses of terrestrial aridity to global warming. J. Geophys. Res., 119(13), 7863–7875,  https://doi.org/10.1002/2014JD021608.Google Scholar
  28. Fu, Q., L. Lin, J. P. Huang, S. Feng, and A. Gettelman, 2016: Changes in terrestrial aridity for the period 850–2080 from the community Earth system Model. J. Geophys. Res., 121(6), 2857–2873,  https://doi.org/10.1002/2015JD024075.Google Scholar
  29. Ge, J. M., J. P. Huang, C. P. Xu, Y. L. Qi, and H. Y. Liu, 2014: Characteristics of Taklimakan dust emission and distribution: A satellite and reanalysis field perspective. J. Geophys. Res., 119(20), 11772–11783,  https://doi.org/10.1002/2014JD022280.Google Scholar
  30. Gong, D. Y., P. J. Shi, and J. A. Wang, 2004: Daily precipitation changes in the semi-arid region over northern China. Journal of Arid Environments, 59(4), 771–784,  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaridenv.2004.02.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Guan, X. D., J. P. Huang, R. X. Guo, H. P. Yu, P. Lin, and Y. T. Zhang, 2015: Role of radiatively forced temperature changes in enhanced semi-arid warming in the cold season over East Asia. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 15(23), 13777–13786,  https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-15-13777-2015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Guan, X. D., P. J. Huang, T. Y. Zhang, K. Y. Xie, and J. J. Liu, 2016: The relationship between anthropogenic dust and population over global semi-arid regions. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 16, 5159–5169,  https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-5159-2016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Han, Z. W., J. W. Li, W. D. Guo, Z. Xiong, and W. Zhang, 2013: A study of dust radiative feedback on dust cycle and meteorology over East Asia by a coupled regional climate-chemistry-aerosol model. Atmos. Environ., 68, 54–63,  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.11.032.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. He, Y. L., J. P. Huang, and M. X. Ji, 2014: Impact of land-sea thermal contrast on interdecadal variation in circulation and blocking. Climate Dyn., 43(12), 3267–3279,  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-014-2103-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Huang, J., C. Zhang, and J. M. Prospero, 2009: Large-scale effect of aerosols on precipitation in the West African monsoon region. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 135(640), 581–594,  https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Huang, J. F., C. D. Zhang, and J. M. Prospero, 2010: African dust outbreaks: A satellite perspective of temporal and spatial variability over the tropical Atlantic Ocean. J. Geophys. Res., 115, D05202,  https://doi.org/10.1029/2009JD012516.Google Scholar
  37. Huang, J. P., B. Lin, P. Minnis, T. H. Wang, X. Wang, Y. X. Hu, Y. H. Yi, and J. K. Ayers, 2006a: Satellite-based assessment of possible dust aerosols semi-direct effect on cloud water path over East Asia. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33(19), L19802,  https://doi.org/10.1029/2006GL026561.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Huang, J. P., P. Minnis, B. Lin, T. H. Wang, Y. H. Yi, Y. X. Hu, S. Sun-Mack, and K. Ayers, 2006b: Possible influences of Asian dust aerosols on cloud properties and radiative forcing observed from MODIS and CERES. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33(6), L06824,  https://doi.org/10.1029/2005GL024724.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Huang, J. P., Y. J. Wang, T. H. Wang, and Y. H. Yi, 2006c: Dusty cloud radiative forcing derived from satellite data for middle latitude regions of East Asia. Progress in Natural Science, 16(10), 1084–1089,  https://doi.org/10.1080/10020070612330114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Huang, J. P., and Coauthors, 2007: Summer dust aerosols detected from CALIPSO over the Tibetan Plateau. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34(18), L18805,  https://doi.org/10.1029/2007GL029938.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Huang, J. P., P. Minnis, B. Chen, Z. W. Huang, Z. Y. Liu, Q. Y. Zhao, Y. H. Yi, and J. K. Ayers, 2008: Long-range transport and vertical structure of Asian dust from CALIPSO and surface measurements during PACDEX. J. Geophys. Res., 113(D23), D23212,  https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JD010620.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Huang, J. P., X. D. Guan, and F. Ji, 2012: Enhanced cold-season warming in semi-arid regions. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 12(12), 5391–5398,  https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-12-5391-2012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Huang, J. P., T. H. Wang, W. C. Wang, Z. Q. Li, and H. R. Yan, 2014: Climate effects of dust aerosols over East Asian arid and semiarid regions. J. Geophys. Res., 119(19), 11398–11416,  https://doi.org/10.1002/2014JD021796.Google Scholar
  44. Huang, J. P., J. J. Liu, B. Chen, and S. L. Nasiri, 2015: Detection of anthropogenic dust using CALIPSO lidar measurements. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 15, 11653–11665,  https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-15-11653-2015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Huang, J. P., M. X. Ji, Y. K. Xie, S. S. Wang, Y. L. He, and J. T. Ran, 2016a: Global semi-arid climate change over last 60 years. Climate Dyn., 46(3–4), 1131–1150,  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-015-2636-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Huang, J. P., H. P. Yu, X. D. Guan, G. Y. Wang, and R. X. Guo, 2016b: Accelerated dryland expansion under climate change. Nature Climate Change, 6(2), 166–171,  https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate2837.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Huang, J. P., and Coauthors, 2017a: Dryland climate change: Recent progress and challenges. Rev. Geophys., 55, 719–778,  https://doi.org/10.1002/2016RG000550.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Huang, J. P., H. P. Yu, A. G. Dai, Y. Wei, and L. T. Kang, 2017b: Drylands face potential threat under 2 °C global warming target. Nature Climate Change, 7, 417–422,  https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate3275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Huang, J. P., Y. K. Xie, X. D. Guan, D. D. Li, and F. Ji, 2017c: The dynamics of the warming hiatus over the Northern Hemisphere. Climate Dyn., 48, 429–446,  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-016-3085-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hulme, M., 1996: Recent climatic change in the world’s drylands. Geophys. Res. Lett., 23(1), 61–64,  https://doi.org/10.1029/95GL03586.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hulme, M., R. Marsh, and P. D. Jones, 1992: Global changes in a humidity index between 1931–60 and 1961–90. Climate Research, 2, 1–22,  https://doi.org/10.3354/cr002001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. IPCC, 2007: Climate Change 2007: Mitigation of Climate Change. In: Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, S. Solomon et al., Eds., Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 996 pp.Google Scholar
  53. Ji, F., Z. H. Wu, J. P. Huang, and E. P. Chassignet, 2014: Evolution of land surface air temperature trend. Nature Climate Change, 4(6), 462–466,  https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate2223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Ji, M. X., J. P. Huang, Y. K. Xie, and J. Liu, 2015: Comparison of dryland climate change in observations and CMIP5 simulations. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 32(11), 1565–1574,  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00376-015-4267-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kawamoto, K., T. Hayasaka, T. Nakajima, D. Streets, and J. H. Woo, 2004: Examining the aerosol indirect effect over China using an SO2 emission inventory. Atmospheric Research, 72(1–4), 353–363,  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosres.2004.03.028.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kerr, Y. H., 2007: Soil moisture from space: Where are we?. Hydrogeology Journal, 15, 117–120,  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10040-006-0095-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Köppen, W., 1884: Die Wärmezonen der Erde, nach der Dauer der heissen, gemässigten und kalten Zeit und nach der Wirkung der Wärme auf die organische Welt betrachtet (The thermal zones of the earth according to the duration of hot, moderate and cold periods and to the impact of heat on the organic world). Meteor. Z., 1, 215–226.Google Scholar
  58. Kurosaki, Y., M. Shinoda, M. Mikami, and B. Nandintsetseg, 2011: Effects of soil and land surface conditions in summer on dust outbreaks in the following spring in a mongolian grassland. Sola, 7(1), 69–72,  https://doi.org/10.2151/sola.2011-018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Li, C. X., T. B. Zhao, and K. R. Ying, 2016a: Effects of anthropogenic aerosols on temperature changes in China during the twentieth century based on CMIP5 models. Theor. Appl. Climatol., 125(3–4), 529–540,  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00704-015-1527-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Li, C. X., T. B. Zhao, and K. R. Ying, 2017: Quantifying the contributions of anthropogenic and natural forcings to climate changes over arid-semiarid areas during 1946–2005. Climatic Change, 144, 505–517,  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-017-2028-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Li, J. B., X. H. Gou, E. R. Cook, and F. H. Chen, 2006: Tree-ring based drought reconstruction for the central Tien Shan area in Northwest China. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33(7), L07715,  https://doi.org/10.1029/2006GL025803.Google Scholar
  62. Li, J. W., Z. F. Liu, C. Y. He, W. Tu, and Z. X. Sun, 2016b: Are the drylands in northern china sustainable? A perspective from ecological footprint dynamics from 1990 to 2010. Science of the Total Environment, 553, 223–231,  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.02.088.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Li, Y., J. P. Huang, M. X. Ji, and J. J. Ran, 2015: Dryland expansion in northern China from 1948 to 2008. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 32(6), 870–876,  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00376-014-4106-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Li, Z. Q., 2004: Aerosol and climate: A perspective over East Asia. In Observation, Theory, and Modeling of the Atmospheric Variability. X. Zhu, et al., Ed., World Sci. Co,  https://doi.org/10.1142/9789812791139-0025.
  65. Li, Z. Q., K. H. Lee, Y. S. Wang, J. Y. Xin, and W. M. Hao, 2010: First observation-based estimates of cloud-free aerosol radiative forcing across China. J. Geophys. Res., 115, D00K18,  https://doi.org/10.1029/2009JD013306.Google Scholar
  66. Li, Z. Q., F. Niu, J. W. Fan, Y. G. Liu, D. Rosenfeld, and Y. N. Ding, 2011: Long-term impacts of aerosols on the vertical development of clouds and precipitation. Nature Geoscience, 4(12), 888–894,  https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo1313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Lin, L., A. Gettelman, S. Feng, and Q. Fu, 2015: Simulated climatology and evolution of aridity in the 21st century. J. Geo-phys. Res., 120(12), 5795–5815,  https://doi.org/10.1002/2014JD022912.Google Scholar
  68. Lin, L., A. Gettelman, Y. Xu, and Q. Fu, 2016: Simulated responses of terrestrial aridity to black carbon and sulfate aerosols. J. Geophys. Res., 121(2), 785–794,  https://doi.org/10.1002/2015JD024100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Lin, P., J. J. Xia, Z. W. Yan, and H. Yang, 2017: Assessment of the Pacific decadal oscillation’s contribution to the occurrence of local torrential rainfall in north China. Climatic Change, 144, 391–403,  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-016-1610-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Liu, C. M., and J. Xia, 2004: Water problems and hydrological research in the Yellow River and the Huai and Hai River basins of China. Hydrological Processes, 18(12), 2197–2210,  https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.5524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Liu, W. W., S. Q. An, G. S. Liu, and A. H. Guo, 2004: The farther modification of Palmer drought severity model. Journal of Applied Meteorological Science, 15, 207–216,  https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1001-7313.2004.02.009. (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  72. Liu, X. D., Q. C. Guo, Z. T. Guo, Z. Y. Yin, B. W. Dong, and R. Smith, 2015: Where were the monsoon regions and arid zones in Asia prior to the Tibetan Plateau uplift?. National Science Review, 2(4), 403–416,  https://doi.org/10.1093/nsr/nwv068.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Liu, Z. Y., M. Notaro, J. Kutzbach, and N. Z. Liu, 2006: Assessing global vegetation-climate feedbacks from observations. J. Climate, 19, 787–814,  https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI3658.1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Ma, J. R., X. D. Guan, R. X. Guo, Z. W. Gan, and Y. K. Xie, 2017: Mechanism of non-appearance of hiatus in Tibetan Plateau. Scientific Reports, 7, 4421,  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-04615-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Ma, Z. G., 2007: The interdecadal trend and shift of dry/wet over the central part of North China and their relationship to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). Chinese Science Bulletin, 52, 2130–2139,  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11434-007-0284-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Ma, Z. G., and C. B. Fu, 2003: Interannual characteristics of the surface hydrological variables over the arid and semi-arid areas of northern China. Global and Planetary Change, 37(3–4), 189–200,  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0921-8181(02)00203-5.Google Scholar
  77. Ma, Z. G., and L. Dan, 2005: Dry/wet variation and its relationship with regional warming in arid-regions of Northern China. Chinese Journal of Geophysics, 48, 1091–1099,  https://doi.org/10.1002/cjg2.752.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Ma, Z. G., and C. B. Fu, 2006: Some evidence of drying trend over northern China from 1951 to 2004. Chinese Science Bulletin, 51, 2913–2925,  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11434-006-2159-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Ma, Z. G., and L. J. Shao, 2006: Relationship between dry/wet variation and the Pacific Decade Oscillation (PDO) in Northern China during the last 100 years. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences, 30, 464–474,  https://doi.org/10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2006.03.10. (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  80. Ma, Z. G., and C. B. Fu, 2007: Global aridification in the second half of the 20th century and its relationship to large-scale climate background. Science in China Series D: Earth Sciences, 50(5), 776–788,  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11430-007-0036-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Maestre, F. T., and Coauthors, 2013: Changes in biocrust cover drive carbon cycle responses to climate change in drylands. Global Change Biology, 19(12), 3835–3847,  https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.12306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Mainguet, M., 1999: Aridity-Droughts and Human Development. Springer, 302 pp,  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-03906-9.
  83. Palmer, W. C., 1965: Meteorological drought research paper 45, Washington D C, US Department of Commerce Weather Bureau.Google Scholar
  84. Penman, H. L., 1948: Natural evaporation from open water, hare soil and grass. Proc. Roy. Soc. London, 193, 120–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Piao, S. L., and Coauthors, 2010: The impacts of climate change on water resources and agriculture in China. Nature, 467(7311), 43–51,  https://doi.org/10.1038/nature09364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Poulter, B. J., and Coauthors, 2014: Contribution of semi-arid ecosystems to interannual variability of the global carbon cycle. Nature, 509, 600–603,  https://doi.org/10.1038/nature13376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Qian, C., and T. J. Zhou, 2014: Multidecadal variability of North China aridity and its relationship to PDO during 1900–2010. J. Climate, 27(3), 1210–1222,  https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00235.1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Qian, W. H., T. Ding, H. R. Hu, X. Lin, and A. M. Qin, 2009: An overview of dry-wet climate variability among monsoon-westerly regions and the monsoon northernmost marginal active zone in China. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 26, 630–641,  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00376-009-8213-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Qian, Z. A., M. H. Song, T. W. Wu, and Y. Cai, 2017: Review of advances in world dryland climate research (II): Main investigation progress. Plateau Meteorology, 36, 1457–1476,  https://doi.org/10.7522/j.issn.1000-0534.2017.00076. (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  90. Reed, S. C., K. K. Coe, J. P. Sparks, D. C. Housman, T. J. Zelikova, and J. Belnap, 2012: Changes to dryland rainfall result in rapid moss mortality and altered soil fertility. Nature Climate Change, 2, 752–755,  https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate1596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Safriel, U., and Z. Adeel, 2005: Dryland systems. Ecosystems and Human Well-being, Current State and Trends, R. Hassan et al., Eds., Island Press, 623–662.Google Scholar
  92. Seager, R., and Coauthors, 2007: Model projections of an imminent transition to a more arid climate in southwestern North America. Science, 316(5828), 1181–1184,  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1139601.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Seneviratne, S. I., T. Corti, E. L. Davin, M. Hirschi, E. B. Jaeger, I. Lehner, B. Orlowsky, and A. J. Teuling, 2010: Investigating soil moisture-climate interactions in a changing climate: A review. Earth-Science Reviews, 99(3–4), 125–161,  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2010.02.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Shi, Z. T., L. Y. Zhang, and G. W. Sui, 1994: Natural disasters and their formation causes on Chinese monsoon marginal belt. Journal of Catastrophology, 9(4), 59–64. (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  95. Su, J., J. P. Huang, Q. Fu, P. Minnis, J. M. Ge, and J. R. Bi, 2008: Estimation of Asian dust aerosol effect on cloud radiation forcing using Fu-Liou radiative model and CERES measurements. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 8, 2763–2771,  https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-8-2763-2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Tang, G. L., Y. H. Ding, S. W. Wang, G. Y. Ren, H. B. Liu, and L. Zhang, 2010: Comparative analysis of China surface air temperature series for the past 100 years. Advance in Climate Change Research, 1(1), 11–19,  https://doi.org/10.3724/SPJ.1248.2010.00011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Thornthwaite, C. W., 1948: An approach toward a rational classification of climate. Geographical Review, 38(1), 55–94,  https://doi.org/10.2307/210739.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Twomey, S., 1977: The influence of pollution on the shortwave albedo of clouds. J. Atmos. Sci., 34, 1149–1154,  https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1977)034<1149:TIOPOT>2.0.CO;2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Vicente-Serrano, S. M., S. Beguería, J. I. López-Moreno, M. Angulo, and A. El Kenawy, 2010: A new global 0.5° gridded dataset (1901-2006) of a multiscalar drought index: Comparison with current drought index datasets based on the Palmer drought severity index. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 11, 1033–1043,  https://doi.org/10.1175/2010JHM1224.1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Wallace, J. M., Y. Zhang, and J. A. Renwick, 1995: Dynamic contribution to hemispheric mean temperature trends. Science, 270(5237), 780–783,  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.270.5237.780.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Wang, G. Y., J. P. Huang, W. D. Guo, J. Q. Zuo, J. M. Wang, J. R. Bi, Z. W. Huang, and J. S. Shi, 2010a: Observation analysis of land-atmosphere interactions over the Loess Plateau of Northwest China. J. Geophys. Res., 115, D00K17,  https://doi.org/10.1029/2009jd013372.Google Scholar
  102. Wang, H. J., Y. N. Chen, and Z. S. Chen, 2013: Spatial distribution and temporal trends of mean precipitation and extremes in the arid region, northwest of China, during 1960–2010. Hydrological Processes, 27(12), 1807–1818,  https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.9339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Wang, L., W. Chen, and R. H. Huang, 2008: Interdecadal modulation of PDO on the impact of ENSO on the East Asian winter monsoon. Geophys. Res. Lett., 35(20), L20702,  https://doi.org/10.1029/2008GL035287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Wang, L., P. D’Odorico, J. P. Evans, D. J. Eldridge, M. F. McCabe, K. K. Caylor, and E. G. King, 2012: Dryland ecohydrology and climate change: Critical issues and technical advances. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 16(8), 2585–2603,  https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-16-2585-2012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Wang, L., W. Chen, G. Huang, and G. Zeng, 2017: Changes of the transitional climate zone in East Asia: Past and future. Climate Dyn., 49, 1463–1477,  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-016-3400-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Wang, S. S., J. P. Huang, Y. L. He, and Y. P. Guan, 2014: Combined effects of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and El Nino-Southern Oscillation on global land dry-wet changes. Scientific Reports, 4, 6651,  https://doi.org/10.1038/srep06651.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Wang, T., W. Wu, X. Xue, Q. W. Sun, W. M. Zhang, and Z. W. Han, 2004: Spatial-temporal changes of sandy desertified land during last 5 decades in Northern China. Acta Geographica Sinica, 59, 203–212,  https://doi.org/10.3321/j.issn:0375-5444.2004.02.006. (in Chinesewith English abstract)Google Scholar
  108. Wang, W. C., J. P. Huang, P. Minnis, Y. X. Hu, J. M. Li, Z. W. Huang, J. K. Ayers, and T. H. Wang, 2010b: Dusty cloud properties and radiative forcing over dust source and downwind regions derived from A-Train data during the Pacific dust experiment. J. Geophys. Res., 115, D00H35,  https://doi.org/10.1029/2010JD014109.Google Scholar
  109. Wells, N., S. Goddard, and M. J. Hayes, 2004: A self-calibrating Palmer drought severity index. J. Climate, 17, 2335–2351,  https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2004)017<2335:ASPDSI>2.0.CO;2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Wu, G. X., Y. M. Liu, X. Zhu, W. Li, R. Ren, A. M. Duan, and X. Liang, 2009: Multi-scale forcing and the formation of subtropical desert and monsoon. Annales Geophysicae, 27, 3631–3644,  https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-27-3631-2009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Xia, J., L. K. Ning, Q. Wang, J. X. Chen, L. Wan, and S. Hong, 2017: Vulnerability of and risk to water resources in arid and semi-arid regions of West China under a scenario of climate change. Climatic Change, 144, 549–563,  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-016-1709-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Xia, X., and Coauthors, 2016: Ground-based remote sensing of aerosol climatology in China: Aerosol optical properties, direct radiative effect and its parameterization. Atmos. Environ., 124, 243–251,  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.05.071.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Xiao, Z. X., and A. M. Duan, 2016: Impacts of Tibetan Plateau snow cover on the interannual variability of the East Asian summer monsoon. J. Climate, 29(23), 8495–8514,  https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0029.1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Xu, Z. F., and Z. L. Yang, 2017: Relative impacts of increased greenhouse gas concentrations and land cover change on the surface climate in arid and semi-arid regions of China. Climatic Change, 144, 491–503,  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-017-2025-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Yang, Q., M. X. Li, Z. Y. Zheng, and Z. G. Ma, 2017a: Regional applicability of seven meteorological drought indices in China. Science China Earth Sciences, 60, 745–760,  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11430-016-5133-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Yang, Q., Z. G. Ma, X. A. Fan, Z. L. Yang, Z. F. Xu, and P. L. Wu, 2017b: Decadal modulation of precipitation patterns over eastern China by sea surface temperature anomalies. J. Climate, 30, 7017–7033,  https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0793.1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Yang, Q., Z. G. Ma, and B. L. Xu, 2017c: Modulation of monthly precipitation patterns over East China by the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. Climatic Change, 144, 405–417,  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-016-1662-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Yin, D. Q., M. L. Roderick, G. Leech, F. B. Sun, and Y. F. Huang, 2014: The contribution of reduction in evaporative cooling to higher surface air temperatures during drought. Geophys. Res. Lett., 41(22), 7891–7897,  https://doi.org/10.1002/2014GL062039.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Yu, Y., and Z. H. Xie, 2013: A simulation study on climatic effects of land cover change in China. Advances in Climate Change Research, 4, 117–126,  https://doi.org/10.3724/SPJ.1248.2013.117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Zhai, P. M., X. B. Zhang, H. Wan, and X. H. Pan, 2005: Trends in total precipitation and frequency of daily precipitation extremes over China. J. Climate, 18(7), 1096–1108,  https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-3318.1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Zhang, H. Q., X. J. Gao, and Y. H. Li, 2009: Climate impacts of land-use change in China and its uncertainty in a global model simulation. Climate Dyn., 32, 473–494,  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-008-0388-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Zhang, J. Y., W. J. Dong, C. B. Fu, and L. Y. Wu, 2003b: The influence of vegetation cover on summer precipitation in China: A statistical analysis of NDVI and climate data. Adv. Atmos. Sci, 20(6), 1002–1006,  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02915523.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Zhang, Q., C. Y. Xu, X. H. Chen, and Z. X. Zhang, 2011: Statistical behaviours of precipitation regimes in China and their links with atmospheric circulation 1960–2005. International Journal of Climatology, 31, 1665–1678,  https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.2193.Google Scholar
  124. Zhang, Q. Y., J. Wei, and S. Y. Tao, 2003a: The decadal and interannual variations of drought in the northern China and association with the circulations. Climatic and Environmental Research, 8(3), 307–318,  https://doi.org/10.3878/j.issn.1006-9585.2003.03.05. (in Chinese English abstract)Google Scholar
  125. Zhang, Y. C., and L. J. Zhang, 2005: Precipitation and temperature probability characteristics in climatic and ecological transition zone of Northeast China in recent 50 years. Scientia Geographica Sinica, 25(5), 561–566,  https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1000-0690.2005.05.008. (in Chinese English abstract)Google Scholar
  126. Zhang, Y. T., X. D. Guan, P. Y. Yu, K. Y. Xie, and C. H. Jin, 2017: Contributions of radiative factors to enhanced dryland warming over East Asia. J. Geophys. Res., 122, 7723–7736,  https://doi.org/10.1002/2017JD026506.Google Scholar
  127. Zhang, Z. S., H. J. Wang, Z. T. Guo, and D. B. Jiang, 2007: What triggers the transition of palaeoenvironmental patterns in China, the Tibetan Plateau uplift or the Paratethys Sea retreat?. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 245, 317–331,  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2006.08.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Zhao, S. Y., H. Zhang, S. Feng, and Q. Fu, 2015: Simulating direct effects of dust aerosol on arid and semi-arid regions using an aerosol-climate coupled system. International Journal of Climatology, 35(8), 1858–1866,  https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.4093.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Zhao, S. Y., H. Zhang, Z. L. Wang, and X. W. Jing, 2017: Simulating the effects of anthropogenic aerosols on terrestrial aridity using an aerosol-climate coupled model. J. Climate, 30, 7451–7463,  https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0407.1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Zhao, T. B., and A. G. Dai., 2015: The magnitude and causes of global drought changes in the twenty-first century under a low-moderate emissions scenario. J. Climate, 28, 4490–4512,  https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00363.1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Zhao, T. B., and A. G. Dai, 2017: Uncertainties in historical changes and future projections of drought. Part II: model-simulated historical and future drought changes. Climatic Change, 144, 535–548,  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-016-1742-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Zhou, L. M., 2016: Desert amplification in a warming climate. Scientific Reports, 6, 31065,  https://doi.org/10.1038/srep31065.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Zhou, L. M., H. S. Chen, W. J. Hua, Y. J. Dai, and N. Wei, 2016: Mechanisms for stronger warming over drier ecoregions observed since 1979. Climate Dyn., 47(9–10), 2955–2974,  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-016-3007-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Institute of Atmospheric Physics/Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Science Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jianping Huang
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jieru Ma
    • 1
  • Xiaodan Guan
    • 1
  • Yue Li
    • 2
  • Yongli He
    • 1
  1. 1.Key Laboratory for Semi-Arid Climate Change of the Ministry of Education, College of Atmospheric SciencesLanzhou UniversityLanzhouChina
  2. 2.Agronomy CollegeShenyang Agricultural UniversityShenyangChina

Personalised recommendations