Advances in Atmospheric Sciences

, Volume 36, Issue 3, pp 261–270 | Cite as

Seesaw Pattern of Rainfall Anomalies between the Tropical Western North Pacific and Central Southern China during Late Summer

  • Xinyu Li
  • Riyu LuEmail author
Original Paper


It is well known that suppressed convection in the tropical western North Pacific (WNP) induces an anticyclonic anomaly, and this anticyclonic anomaly results in more rainfall along the East Asian rain band through more water vapor transport during summer, as well as early and middle summer. However, the present results indicate that during late summer (from mid-August to the beginning of September), the anomalous anticyclone leads to more rainfall over central southern China (CSC), a region quite different from preceding periods. The uniqueness of late summer is found to be related to the dramatic change in climatological monsoon flows: southerlies over southern China during early and middle summer but easterlies during late summer. Therefore, the anomalous anticyclone, which shows a southerly anomaly over southern China, enhances monsoonal southerlies and induces more rainfall along the rain band during early and middle summer. During late summer, however, the anomalous anticyclone reflects a complicated change in monsoon flows: it changes the path, rather than the intensity, of monsoon flows. Specifically, during late summers of suppressed convection in the tropical WNP, southerlies dominate from the South China Sea to southern China, and during late summers of enhanced convection, northeasterlies dominate from the East China Sea to southern China, causing more and less rainfall in CSC, respectively.

Key words

tropical western North Pacific monsoon flows precipitation late summer 




热带西北太平洋 季风环流 降水 后夏 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.



We thank the two anonymous reviewers for their comments, which were helpful in improving the presentation. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 41721004 and 41320104007).


  1. Chen, T.-C., S.-Y. Wang, W.-R. Huang, and M.-C. Yen, 2004: Variation of the East Asian summer monsoon rainfall. J. Climate, 17(4), 744–762,<0744:VOTEAS>2.0.CO;2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Chen, W., J.-K. Park, B. W. Dong, R. Y. Lu, and W.-S. Jung, 2012: The relationship between El Niño and the western North Pacific summer climate in a coupled GCM: Role of the transition of El Niño decaying phases. J. Geophys. Res., 117, D12111, Scholar
  3. Chen, W., J.-Y. Lee, K.-J. Ha, K.-S. Yun, and R. Y. Lu, 2016: Intensification of the western North Pacific anticyclone response to the short decaying El Niño event due to greenhouse warming. J. Climate, 29(10), 3607–3627, Scholar
  4. Chu, J.-E., S. N. Hameed, and K.-J. Ha, 2012: Nonlinear, intraseasonal phases of the East Asian summer monsoon: Extraction and analysis using self-organizing maps. J. Climate, 25, 6975–6988, Scholar
  5. Ding, Y. H., 2005: Advanced Synoptic Meteorology. 2nd ed. China Meteorological Press, 585 pp. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  6. Ding, Y. H., and J. C. L. Chan, 2005: The East Asian summer monsoon: An overview. Meteor. Atmos. Phys., 89(1–4), 117–142, Scholar
  7. Han, Y. H., Z. G. Ma, Q. Yang, and Z. H. Pan, 2014: Changing characteristics of daytime and nighttime precipitation in Xinjiang under global warming. Climatic and Environmental Research, 19(6), 763–772, (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  8. Hu, K. M., S.-P. Xie, and G. Huang, 2017: Orographically anchored El Niño effect on summer rainfall in central China. J. Climate, 30(24), 10 037–10 045, Scholar
  9. Huang, R. H., and F. Y. Sun, 1992: Impacts of the tropical western Pacific on the East Asian summer monsoon. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 70(1B), 243–256, Scholar
  10. Kobayashi, S., and Coauthors, 2015: The JRA-55 reanalysis: General specifications and basic characteristics. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 93(1), 5–48, Scholar
  11. Kosaka, Y., and H. Nakamura, 2010: Mechanisms of meridional teleconnection observed between a summer monsoon system and a subtropical anticyclone. Part I: The Pacific-Japan pattern. J. Climate, 23(19), 5085–5108, Scholar
  12. Kosaka, Y., S.-P. Xie, and H. Nakamura, 2011: Dynamics of interannual variability in summer precipitation over East Asia. J. Climate, 24, 5435–5453, Scholar
  13. Kurihara, K., and T. Tsuyuki, 1987: Development of the barotropic high around Japan and its association with Rossby wavelike propagations over the North Pacific: Analysis of August 1984. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 65, 237–246, 237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Li, C. F., R. Y. Lu, and B. W. Dong, 2014: Predictability of the western North Pacific summer climate associated with different ENSO phases by ENSEMBLES multi-model seasonal forecasts. Climate Dyn., 43, 1829–1845, Scholar
  15. Li, X. Y., and R. Y. Lu, 2017: Extratropical factors affecting the variability in summer precipitation over the Yangtze River basin, China. J. Climate, 30(20), 8357–8374, Scholar
  16. Li, X. Y., and R. Y. Lu, 2018: Subseasonal change in the seesaw pattern of precipitation between the Yangtze River basin and the tropical western North Pacific during summer. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 35(10), 1231–1242, Scholar
  17. Lin, Z. D., and R. Y. Lu, 2008: Abrupt northward jump of the East Asian upper-tropospheric jet stream in mid-summer. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 84(6), 857–866, Scholar
  18. Lin, Z. D., and R. Y. Lu, 2009: The ENSO’s effect on eastern China rainfall in the following early summer. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 26(2), 333–342, Scholar
  19. Lu, R. Y., 2001a: Interannual variability of the summertime North Pacific subtropical high and its relation to atmospheric convection over the warm pool. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 79, 771–783, Scholar
  20. Lu, R. Y., 2001b: Atmospheric circulations and sea surface temperatures related to the convection over the western Pacific warm pool on the interannual scale. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 18, 270–282, Scholar
  21. Lu, R. Y., 2004: Associations among the components of the East Asian summer monsoon systems in the meridional direction. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 82(1), 155–165, Scholar
  22. Lu, R. Y., and B. W. Dong, 2001: Westward extension of North Pacific subtropical high in summer. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 79(6), 1229–1241, Scholar
  23. Nitta, T., 1987: Convective activities in the tropical western Pacific and their impact on the Northern Hemisphere summer circulation. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 65(3), 373–390, Scholar
  24. Oh, H., and K.-J. Ha, 2015: Thermodynamic characteristics and responses to ENSO of dominant intraseasonal modes in the East Asian summer monsoon. Climate Dyn., 44(7–8), 1751–1766, Scholar
  25. Qian, W. H., and D. K. Lee, 2000: Seasonal march of Asian summer monsoon. International Journal of Climatology, 20(11), 1371–1386,<1371::AID-JOC538>3.0.CO;2-V.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Su, Q., R. Y. Lu, and C. F. Li, 2014: Large-scale circulation anomalies associated with interannual variation in monthly rainfall over South China from May to August. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 31(2), 273–282, Scholar
  27. Su, T. H., and F. Xue, 2010: The intraseasonal variation of summer monsoon circulation and rainfall in East Asia. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences, 34(3), 611–628, (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  28. Tao, S.-Y., and L. X. Chen, 1987: A review of recent research on the East Asian summer monsoon in China. Monsoon Meteorology, C.-P. Chang and T. N. Krishnamurti, Eds., Oxford University Press, 60–92.Google Scholar
  29. Wang, B., R. G. Wu, and X. H. Fu, 2000: Pacific–East Asian teleconnection: How does ENSO affect East Asian climate? J. Climate, 13, 1517–1536,,1517:PEATHD.2.0.CO;2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Wu, R., and B. Wang, 2001: Multi-stage onset of the summer monsoon over the western North Pacific. Climate Dyn., 17, 277–289, Scholar
  31. Xie, P. P., and P. A. Arkin, 1997: Global precipitation: A 17- year monthly analysis based on gauge observations, satellite estimates, and numerical model outputs. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 78, 2539–2558,<2539:GPAYMA>2.0.CO;2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ye, H., and R. Y. Lu, 2011: Subseasonal variation in ENSO-related East Asian rainfall anomalies during summer and its role in weakening the relationship between the ENSO and summer rainfall in eastern China since the late 1970s. J. Climate, 24(9), 2271–2284, Scholar
  33. Zhao, P., R. H. Zhang, J. P. Liu, X. J. Zhou, and J. H. He, 2007: Onset of southwesterly wind over eastern China and associated atmospheric circulation and rainfall. Climate Dyn., 28(7–8), 797–811, Scholar
  34. Zhou, T.-J., and R.-C. Yu, 2005: Atmospheric water vapor transport associated with typical anomalous summer rainfall patterns in China. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D08104, Scholar

Copyright information

© Chinese National Committee for International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Science Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Institute of Atmospheric PhysicsChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  2. 2.College of Earth and Planetary SciencesUniversity of the Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  3. 3.College of OceanographyHohai UniversityNanjingChina

Personalised recommendations