Advances in Atmospheric Sciences

, Volume 36, Issue 4, pp 431–450 | Cite as

Numerical Study of Boundary Layer Structure and Rainfall after Landfall of Typhoon Fitow (2013): Sensitivity to Planetary Boundary Layer Parameterization

  • Meiying Dong
  • Chunxiao JiEmail author
  • Feng Chen
  • Yuqing Wang
Original Paper


The boundary layer structure and related heavy rainfall of Typhoon Fitow (2013), which made landfall in Zhejiang Province, China, are studied using the Advanced Research version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model, with a focus on the sensitivity of the simulation to the planetary boundary layer parameterization. Two groups of experiments—one with the same surface layer scheme and including the Yonsei University (YSU), Mellor–Yamada–Nakanishi–Niino Level 2.5, and Bougeault and Lacarrere schemes; and the other with different surface layer schemes and including the Mellor–Yamada–Janjić and Quasi-Normal Scale Elimination schemes—are investigated. For the convenience of comparative analysis, the simulation with the YSU scheme is chosen as the control run because this scheme successfully reproduces the track, intensity and rainfall as a whole. The maximum deviations in the peak tangential and peak radial winds may account for 11% and 33% of those produced in the control run, respectively. Further diagnosis indicates that the vertical diffusivity is much larger in the first group, resulting in weaker vertical shear of the tangential and radial winds in the boundary layer and a deeper inflow layer therein. The precipitation discrepancies are related to the simulated track deflection and the differences in the simulated low-level convergent flow among all tests. Furthermore, the first group more efficiently transfers moisture and energy and produces a stronger ascending motion than the second, contributing to a deeper moist layer, stronger convection and greater precipitation.

Key words

planetary boundary layer parameterization landfalling typhoon boundary layer structure rainfall 

摘 要

针对大气行星边界层物理过程影响登陆台风结构和强降水的敏感性问题, 本文以2013年造成中国浙江最强日降水的Fitow台风为例, 利用高分辨率WRF模式和谱动力张弛逼近技术, 设计了两组敏感性试验: 第一组试验采用了相同的表面层方案, 包括采用YSU, MYNN2和BouLac边界层方案的3个试验; 第二组试验采用了不同的表面层方案, 包括采用MYJ和QNSE边界层方案的2个试验, 探讨了大气行星边界层参数化对登陆台风结构和强降水的影响效应和可能过程. 结果表明: (1)采用YSU边界层方案较成功再现了Fitow台风的路径, 强度和极端强降水, 路径和强度平均误差为19 km和2.8 m s−1, 逐6h降水的相对误差多小于10%, 为方便文中对比分析该试验被选为控制试验. (2)台风边界层结构对于不同边界层参数化方案比较敏感. 各试验之间最大切向风和径向风的偏差可分别占控制试验最大切向风和切向风的11%和33%, 这种差异主要与水汽和能量的湍流垂直混合有关. 第一组试验中垂直交换效率明显高于第二组试验, 从而导致了第一组试验中台风边界层结构具有较弱的切向风, 径向风垂直切变和更深厚入流. (3)不同边界层参数化方案对登陆后台风强降水影响明显. 这一方面与不同边界层参数化引起引导气流不同导致台风路径出现偏折有关, 另一方面也与台风和周围环境相互作用导致低层辐合线位置差异相联系. 不同边界层参数化过程的反馈使得暴雨区在低层风场, 辐合以及垂直运动产生差异. 总体上, 相比于第二组试验, 第一组试验水汽和能量的湍流垂直交换更加充分, 上升运动更强, 更有助于深厚湿层, 强对流和台风极端强降水的发生.


行星边界层参数化 登陆台风 边界层结构 降水 


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The authors are grateful to Dr. Chunxi ZHANG, Miss Hao FU, and Dr. Yu-Jun JIANG for their assistance with the numerical experiments and helpful discussions. This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41375056), the National Basic Research and Development Project (973 program) of China under contract no. 2015CB452805, the National Key Technology R&D Program (Grant No. 2012BAC03), the Social Welfare Technology Development Projects of the Science and Technology Department of Zhejiang Province (Grant No. 2014C33056), and the Key Project of Science and Technology Plan of Zhejiang Meteorological Provincial Bureau (2017ZD04). The data for the initial and lateral boundary conditions of the model were obtained from the NOAA National Operation Model Archive (, the best-track data for Typhoon Fitow (2013) were obtained from the Shanghai Typhoon Institute of the China Meteorological Administration (, and the AWS precipitation data were obtained from the Zhejiang Meteorology Bureau.


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Copyright information

© Chinese National Committee for International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Science Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Meiying Dong
    • 1
    • 2
  • Chunxiao Ji
    • 1
    Email author
  • Feng Chen
    • 1
  • Yuqing Wang
    • 2
  1. 1.Zhejiang Institute of Meteorological SciencesHangzhouChina
  2. 2.International Pacific Research Center, and Department of Meteorology, School of Ocean and Earth Science and TechnologyUniversity of Hawaii at ManoaHonoluluUSA

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