Advances in Atmospheric Sciences

, Volume 34, Issue 12, pp 1437–1446 | Cite as

Multiyear observations of deposition-mode ice nucleating particles at two high-altitude stations in India

  • Sandeep D. Wagh
  • Baban Nagare
  • Sanjay D. More
  • P. Pradeep Kumar
Original Paper


Ice nucleating particle (INP) measurements were made at two high-altitude stations in India. Aerosols collected on filter paper at Girawali Observatory, Inter University Center for Astronomy & Astrophysics (IGO), and at the Radio Astronomy Center, Ooty (RAC), were activated in deposition mode using a thermal gradient diffusion chamber to determine the INP concentrations. The measurement campaigns at IGO were conducted during 2011, 2013 and 2014, and at RAC during 2013 and 2014. When the aerosol samples were exposed to an ice supersaturation of between 5% and 23% in the temperature range −17.6°C to −22°C, the maximum INP number concentration at IGO and RAC was 1.0 L−1 and 1.6 L−1, respectively. A maximum correlation coefficient of 0.76 was observed between the INP number concentration and ice supersaturation. The airmass trajectories analyzed for the measurement campaigns showed that the Arabian Desert and arid regions were the main INP contributors. Elemental analysis of particles showed the presence of Na, Cl, Si, Al, Fe, Cu, Co, Cd, S, Mn and K, as well as some rare-Earth elements like Mo, Ru, La, Ce, V and Zr. When aerosols in the size range 0.5–20 μm were considered, the fraction that acted as INPs was 1: 104 to 1: 106 at IGO, and 1: 103 to 1: 104 at RAC. The higher ratio of INPs to aerosols at RAC than IGO may be attributable to the presence of rare-Earth elements observed in the aerosol samples at RAC, which were absent at IGO.

Key words

ice nuclei diffusion chamber aerosol high-altitude observation 


本文通过印度两个高海拔站开展冰核观测. 在天文与天体物理校际中心 (IGO)的吉徕瓦里(Girawali)天文台和乌蒂(Ooty)射电天文中心(RAC), 气溶胶通过滤膜收集后在热力梯度扩散云室中测量凝华核化形成的冰核数浓度. IGO站的观测时间为2011年、2013年和2014年, RAC站的观测时间为2013年和2014年. 在冰面过饱和度为5%至23%、温度为−17.6 °C至−22°C的条件下, 观测到的最大冰核数浓度在IGO站和RAC站分别为1.0 L−1和1.6 L−1. 冰核数浓度和冰面过饱和度之间的最大相关系数达到0.76. 气团轨迹分析表明冰核主要来自阿拉伯沙漠和干旱区. 元素分析显示气溶胶粒子中含有Na、Cl、Si、Al、Fe、Cu、Co、Cd、S、Mn和K元素以及稀有元素Mo、Ru、La、Ce、V和Zr. 气溶胶粒径为0.5至20 µm时, 活化冰核占气溶胶比例在IGO站为1:104 至1:106, 在RAC站为1:103 至1:104. 相比IGO站, RAC站高的冰核占比归因于气溶胶粒子中含有IGO站缺少的稀有元素.


冰核 扩散云室 气溶胶 高海拔观测 


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We thank Dr. Ranjan GUPTA, Dr. Vijay MOHAN, and Dr. P. K. MANOHARAN for providing all the facilities for carrying out the observations. The authors are also thankful to Sushant PURANIK, Rajan PULAKESHI, Sachin PATADE, K. C. Sinha RAY and P. N. SEN for fruitful discussions. Support received under a UGC-Rajiv Gandhi National Research Fellowship and DST-PURSE grant is acknowledged. The authors gratefully acknowledge the NOAA Air Resources Laboratory for the provision of the HYS-PLIT transport and dispersion model used in this publication for back trajectory analysis. We also thank the Department of Physics, Savitribai Phule Pune University, for extending the SEM-EDX facility for carrying out the analysis. Finally, we also thank the two anonymous reviewers for their critical comments, which improved the manuscript. The work is supported by DST-PURSE grant (GOI-A-670).


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Copyright information

© Chinese National Committee for International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Science Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sandeep D. Wagh
    • 1
  • Baban Nagare
    • 2
  • Sanjay D. More
    • 1
    • 3
  • P. Pradeep Kumar
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Atmospheric and Space SciencesSavitribai Phule Pune UniversityPuneIndia
  2. 2.Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology PashanPuneIndia
  3. 3.Skymet Weather Services Pvt Ltd.Vashi, Navi MumbaiIndia

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