An abrupt rainfall decrease over the Asian inland plateau region around 1999 and the possible underlying mechanism
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A decadal change in summer rainfall in the Asian inland plateau (AIP) region is identified around 1999. This decadal change is characterized by an abrupt decrease in summer rainfall of about 15.7% of the climatological average amount, leading to prolonged drought in the Asian inland plateau region. Both the surface air temperature and potential evapotranspiration in the AIP show a significant increase, while the soil moisture exhibits a decrease, after the late 1990s. Furthermore, the normalized difference vegetation index shows an apparent decreasing trend during 1999–2007. Three different drought indices—the standardized precipitation index, the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index, and the self-calibrating Palmer drought severity index—present pronounced climate anomalies during 1999–2007, indicating dramatic drought exacerbation in the region after the late 1990s. This decadal change in the summer rainfall may be attributable to a wave-like teleconnection pattern from Western Europe to Asia. A set of model sensitivity experiments suggests that the summer warming sea surface temperature in the North Atlantic could induce this teleconnection pattern over Eurasia, resulting in recent drought in the AIP region.
Key wordsAsian inland plateau summer rainfall drought teleconnection pattern North Atlantic
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We thank the two anonymous reviewers for their constructive suggestions and comments, which helped to improve the paper. This research was supported jointly by the National Key Research and Development Program (Grant No. 2016YFA0600604), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41461144001 and 41375046), Open Research Fund Program of Key Laboratory of Meteorological Disaster of Ministry of Education (Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology) Grant No. KLME1403, and the Chinese Academy of Sciences President’s International Fellowship Initiative. In this study, the NCEP data are provided by NOAA/OAR/ESRL PSD, Boulder, Colorado, USA, and available online at https://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/; the SST data are derived from the Met Office Hadley Centre (http://www.metoffice.gov.uk/hadobs/hadisst/data/download.html).
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