Advances in Atmospheric Sciences

, Volume 30, Issue 2, pp 263–279 | Cite as

A study on a snowband associated with a coastal front and cold-air damming event of 3–4 February 1998 along the eastern coast of the Korean Peninsula

Article

Abstract

A 24-h simulation with the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) nonhydrostatic model is performed for the heavy snowfall event of 3–4 February 1998 along the eastern coast of Korean Peninsula; the results are used to understand the snowfall process, including why the precipitation maxima formed along the Yeongdong coastal region rather than over the mountain slope and ridge top during.

The numerical simulation with a 4-km horizontal grid spacing and 43 levels reproduces very well the narrow snowband located off the eastern Korean coast, away from, instead of over, the Yeongdong coastal mountain range. The general evolution of the snowband agrees quite well with radar observations, while the water-equivalent precipitation amount agrees reasonably well with radar precipitation estimate. The simulation results clearly show that the snow band developed due to the lifting by a coastal front that developed because of the damming of cold air against the eastern slope of the coastal mountain range. The damming was enhanced by the advection of cold air by a low-level mountain-parallel jet from the north, formed due to geostrophic adjustment as the on-shore upslope air was decelerated by the mountain blocking. As the onshore flow weakened later due to synoptic-scale flow pattern change, the cold front propagated off shore and the precipitation dissipated.

Key words

coastal snowfall cold air damming orographic precipitation 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Atlas, D., S-H. Chou, and W. P. Byerly, 1983: The in-fluence of coastal shape on winter meso-scale air-sea interaction. Mon. Wea. Rev., 111, 245–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baines, P. G., 1979: Observations of stratified flow past three-dimensional barriers. J. Geophys. Res., 84, 7834–7838.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bell, D. G., and L. F. Bosart, 1988: Appalachian cold-air damming. Mon. Wea. Rev., 116, 137–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bosart, L. F., 1975: New England coastal frontogenesis. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 101, 957–978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bosart, L. F., 1981: The President’s Day snowstorm of 18–19 February 1979: A subsynoptic-scale event. Mon. Wea. Rev., 109, 1542–1566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bosart, L. F., D. J. Vaudo, and J. H. Heldson Jr., 1972: Coastal frontogenesis. J. Appl. Meteor., 11, 1236–1258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chen, T. C., C. B. Chang, and D. J. Perkey, 1983: Numerical study of an AMTEX 75 oceanic cyclone. Mon. Wea. Rev., 111, 1818–1829.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Eichenlaub, V. L., 1979: Weather and Climate of the Great Lakes Region. University of Notre Dame Press, 335pp.Google Scholar
  9. Estoque, M. A., and K. Ninomiya, 1976: Numerical simulation of Japan Sea effect snowfall. Tellus, 28, 243–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Forbes, G. S., R. A. Anthes, and D. W. Thomson, 1987: Synoptic and mesoscale aspects of an Appalachian ice storm associated with cold-air damming. Mon. Wea. Rev., 115, 564–591.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hjelmfelt, M. R., and R. R. Braham Jr., 1983: Numerical simulation of the air flow over Lake Michigan for a major lake-effect snow event. Mon. Wea. Rev., 111, 205–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Jhun, J.-G, D.-K. Lee, and H.-A. Lee, 1994: A study on the heavy snowfalls occurred in South Korea. J. Korean Meteor. Soc., 30, 97–117. (in Korean with English abstract)Google Scholar
  13. Kitabayshi, K., 1977: Wind tunnel and field studies of stagnant flow upstream of a ridge. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 55, 193–203.Google Scholar
  14. KMA, 1996: A new numerical weather prediction system at KMA. Technical Report 96-2, 147pp. (in Korean)Google Scholar
  15. Lee, H., and T.-Y. Lee, 1994: The governing factors for heavy snowfalls in Youngdong area. J. Korean Meteor. Soc., 30, 197–218. (in Korean with English abstract)Google Scholar
  16. Lee, J. G., 1999: Synoptic structure causing the difference in observed snowfall amount at Taegwallyong and Kangnung. Asia-Pacific Journal of Atmospheric Sciences, 35, 319–334. (in Korean with English abstract)Google Scholar
  17. Lee, J. G., and Y. J. Kim, 2008: A numerical simulation study using WRF of a heavy snowfall event in the Yeongdong coastal area in relation to the northeasterly. Atmosphere, 18, 339–354. (in Korean with English abstract)Google Scholar
  18. Lee, J. G., S.-D. Kim, and Y.-J. Kim, 2011: A trajectory study on the heavy snowfall phenomenon in Yeongdong region of Korea. Asia-Pacific Journal of Atmospheric Sciences, 47, 45–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lin, Y.-L., R. D. Farley, and H. D. Orville, 1983: Bulk parameterization of the snow field in a cloud model. J. Climate Appl. Meteor., 22, 1065–1092.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Mason, P. J., and R. I. Skyes, 1978: On the interaction of topography and Ekman boundary layer pumping in a stratified atmosphere. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 104, 475–490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Nagata, M., M. Ikawa, S. Yoshizumi, and T. Yoshida, 1986: On the formation of a convergent cloud band over the Japan sea in winter: Numerical experiments. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 64, 841–855.Google Scholar
  22. Ninomiya, K., 1968: Heat and water budget over the Japan sea and the Japan islands in winter season. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 46, 343–372.Google Scholar
  23. Niziol, T. A., W. R. Snyder, and J. S. Waldstreicher, 1995: Winter weather forecasting throughout the eastern United States. Part IV: Lake effect snow. Wea. Forecasting, 10, 61–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Noilhan, J., and S. Planton, 1989: A simple parameterization of land surface processes for meteorological models. Mon. Wea. Rev., 117, 536–549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ren, D., and M. Xue, 2004: A revised force-restore model for land-surface modeling. J. Appl. Meteor., 43, 1768–1782.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Richwien, B. A., 1980: The damming effect of the southern Appalachians. Natl. Wea. Dig., 5, 2–12.Google Scholar
  27. Rotunno, R., J. B. Klemp, and M. L. Weisman, 1988: A theory for strong long-lived squall lines. J. Atmos. Sci., 45, 463–485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Sanders, F., and J. R. Gyakum, 1980: Synoptic dynamic climatology of the bomb. Mon. Wea. Rev., 108, 1589–1606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Seo, E.-K., and J.-G. Jhun, 1991: A case study of the heavy snowfalls occurred in the Korean peninsula from 29 January to 1 February 1990. J. Korean Meteor. Soc., 27, 165–179. (in Korean with English abstract)Google Scholar
  30. Skamarock, W. C., J. B. Klemp, J. Dudhia, D. O. Gill, D. M. Barker, W. Wang, and J. D. Powers, 2005: A Description of the advanced research WRF version 2, NCAR Tech. Note NCAR/TN-468+STR, 88pp.Google Scholar
  31. Stauffer, D. R., and T. T. Warner, 1987: A numerical study of Appalachian cold-air damming and coastal frontogenesis. Mon. Wea. Rev., 115, 799–821.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Waldstreicher, J. S., 2002: A foot of snow from a 3000-foot cloud-The ocean-effect snowstorm of 14 January 1999. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 83, 19–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Xu, Q., 1990: A theoretical study of cold-air damming. J. Atmos. Sci., 47, 2969–2985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Xu, Q., and S. Gao, 1995: An analytic model of cold air damming and its applications. J. Atmos. Sci., 52, 353–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Xue, M., K. K. Droegemeier, V. Wong, A. Shapiro, and K. Brewster, 1995: ARPS Version 4.0 User’s Guide. [Available online at http://www.caps.ou.edu/ARPS.]
  36. Xue, M., K. K. Droegemeier, and V. Wong, 2000: The Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS)-A multiscale nonhydrostatic atmospheric simulation and prediction tool. Part I: Model dynamics and verification. Meteor. Atmos. Phys., 75, 161–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Xue, M., and Coauthors, 2001: The Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS)-A multi-scale nonhydrostatic atmospheric simulation and prediction tool. Part II: Model physics and applications. Meteor. Atmos. Phys., 76, 143–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Xue, M., D.-H. Wang, J.-D. Gao, K. Brewster, and K. K. Droegemeier, 2003: The Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS), storm-scale numerical weather prediction and data assimilation. Meteor. Atmos. Phys., 82, 139–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Chinese National Committee for International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Science Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Atmospheric Environmental Sciences Kangnung National UniversityKangnungKorea
  2. 2.Center for Analysis and Prediction of StormsNormanUSA
  3. 3.School of MeteorologyUniversity of OklahomaNormanUSA

Personalised recommendations