Advertisement

Advances in Atmospheric Sciences

, Volume 29, Issue 5, pp 910–942 | Cite as

Characteristics, processes, and causes of the spatio-temporal variabilities of the East Asian monsoon system

  • Ronghui Huang (黄荣辉)Email author
  • Jilong Chen (陈际龙)
  • Lin Wang (王 林)
  • Zhongda Lin (林中达)
Article

Abstract

Recent advances in the study of the characteristics, processes, and causes of spatio-temporal variabilities of the East Asian monsoon (EAM) system are reviewed in this paper. The understanding of the EAM system has improved in many aspects: the basic characteristics of horizontal and vertical structures, the annual cycle of the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) system and the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) system, the characteristics of the spatio-temporal variabilities of the EASM system and the EAWM system, and especially the multiple modes of the EAM system and their spatio-temporal variabilities. Some new results have also been achieved in understanding the atmosphere-ocean interaction and atmosphere-land interaction processes that affect the variability of the EAM system. Based on recent studies, the EAM system can be seen as more than a circulation system, it can be viewed as an atmosphere-ocean-land coupled system, namely, the EAM climate system. In addition, further progress has been made in diagnosing the internal physical mechanisms of EAM climate system variability, especially regarding the characteristics and properties of the East Asia-Pacific (EAP) teleconnection over East Asia and the North Pacific, the “Silk Road” teleconnection along the westerly jet stream in the upper troposphere over the Asian continent, and the dynamical effects of quasi-stationary planetary wave activity on EAM system variability. At the end of the paper, some scientific problems regarding understanding the EAM system variability are proposed for further study.

Key words

East Asian monsoon system spatio-temporal variations climate system EAP teleconnection 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Annamalai, H., P. Liu, and S. P. Xie, 2005: Southwest Indian Ocean SST variability: Its local effect and remote influence on Asian monsoons. J. Climate, 18, 4150–4167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ashok, K., S. K. Behera, S. A. Rao, H. Y. Weng, and T. Yamagata, 2007: El Niño Modoki and its possible teleconnection. J. Geophys. Res., 112, doi: 10.1029/2006JC003798.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barriopedro, D., C. M. Gouveia, R. M. Trigo, and L. Wang, 2012: The 2009–2010 drought in China: Possible causes and impacts on vegetation. J. Hydrometeorology, doi: 10.1175/JHM-D-11-074.1. (in press)Google Scholar
  4. Bond, N. A., and D. E. Harrison, 2000: The Pacific decadal oscillation, air-sea interaction and central north Pacific winter atmospheric regimes. Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 731–734.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cai, R. S., J. L. Chen, and R. H. Huang, 2006: The response of marine environment in the offshore area of China and its adjacent ocean to recent global climate change. Chinese J. Atmos. Sci., 30, 1019–1033. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  6. Cai, R. S., J. L. Chen, and H. J. Tan, 2011: Variations of the sea surface temperature in the offshore area of China and its relationship with the East Asian monsoon under the global warming. Climatic and Environmental Research, 16, 94–104. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  7. Chang, C. P., J. E. Erickson, and K. M. Lau, 1979: Northeasterly Cold Surges and near-Equatorial Disturbances over the Winter Monex Area during December 1974.1. Synoptic Aspects. Mon. Wea. Rev., 107, 812–829.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chang, C. P., Y. S. Zhang, and T. Li, 2000a: Interannual and interdecadal variations of the East Asian summer monsoon and tropical Pacific SSTs. Part I: Roles of the subtropical ridge. J. Climate, 13, 4310–4325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chang, C. P., Y. S. Zhang, and T. Li, 2000b: Interannual and interdecadal variations of the East Asian summer monsoon and tropical Pacific SSTs. Part II: Meridional structure of the monsoon. J. Climate, 13, 4326–4340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chen, J. L., and R. H. Huang, 2006: The comparison of climotological characteristics among Asian and Australian monsoon subsystem. Part I. The wind structure of summer monsoon. Chinese J. Atmos. Sci., 30, 1091–1102. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  11. Chen, J. L., and R. H. Huang, 2007: The comparison of climotological characteristics among Asian and Australian monsoon subsystem. Part II. Water vapor transport by summer monsoon. Chinese J. Atmos. Sci., 31, 766–778. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  12. Chen, L. X., Q. G. Zhu, H. B. Luo, and J. H. He, 1991: East Asian Monsoon. China Meteorological Press, Beijing, 362pp. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  13. Chen, L. X., X. J. Zhou,W. L. Li, Y. F. Luo, and W. Q. Zhu, 2004: Characteristics of the climate change and its formation mechanism in China during the last 80 years. Acta Meteorolologica Sinica, 62, 634–646. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  14. Chen, W., 2002: Impacts of El Niño and La Niña on the cycle of the East Asian winter and summer monsoon. Chinese J. Atmos. Sci., 26, 595–610. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  15. Chen, W., and H.-F. Graf, 1998: The interannual variability of East Asian winter monsoon and its relation to global circulation. Report No. 250.Google Scholar
  16. Chen, W., and R. H. Huang, 2005: The three-dimensional propagation of quasi-stationary planetary waves in the Northern Hemisphere winter and its interannual variations. Chinese J. Atmos. Sci., 29, 137–146. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  17. Chen, W., H. F. Graf, and R. H. Huang, 2000: The interannual variability of East Asian winter monsoon and its relation to the summer monsoon. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 17, 48–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chen, W., H. F. Graf, and M. Takahashi, 2002: Observed interannual oscillations of planetary wave forcing in the Northern Hemisphere winter. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29, doi: 10.1029/2002gl016062.Google Scholar
  19. Chen, W., M. Takahashi, and H. F. Graf, 2003: Interannual variations of stationary planetary wave activity in the northern winter troposphere and stratosphere and their relations to NAM and SST. J. Geophys. Res., 108, doi: 10.1029/2003jd003834.Google Scholar
  20. Chen, W., S. Yang, and R. H. Huang, 2005: Relationship between stationary planetary wave activity and the East Asian winter monsoon. J. Geophys. Res., 110, doi: 10.1029/2004JD005669.Google Scholar
  21. Chen, W., L. Wang, Y. Xue, and S. Sun, 2009: Variabilities of the spring river runoff system in East China and their relations to precipitation and sea surface temperature. Int. J. Climatol., 29, 1381–1394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cheng, A., W. Chen, and R. Huang, 1998: The Sensitivity of Numerical Simulation of the East Asian Monsoon to Different Cumulus Parameterization Schemes. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 15, 204–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cornejo-Garrido, A. G., and P. H. Stone, 1977: On the Heat Balance of the Walker Circulation. J. Atmos. Sci., 34, 1155–1162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Deng, W. T., Z. B. Sun, G. Zeng, and D. H. Ni, 2009: Interdecadal variation of summer precipitation pattern over eastern China and its relationship with the North Pacific SST. Chinese J. Atmos. Sci., 33, 835–846. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  25. Dickinson, R. E., 1968: Planetary Rossby Waves Propagating Vertically through Weak Westerly Wind Wave Guides. J. Atmos. Sci., 25, 984–1002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ding, Q. H., and B. Wang, 2005: Circumglobal teleconnection in the Northern Hemisphere summer. J. Climate, 18, 3483–3505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ding, Y. H., 1994: Monsoons over China. Dordrecht/Voston/London: Springer/Kluwer Academic Publishers, 432pp.Google Scholar
  28. Ding, Y. H., 2007: The variability of the Asian summer monsoon. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 85, 21–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ding, Y. H., and C. He, 2006: The summer monsoon onset over the tropical eastern Indian Ocean: The earliest onset process of the Asian summer monsoon. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 23, 940–950.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ding, Y. H., and X. Q. Ma, 2007: Analysis of isentropic potential vorticity for a strong cold wave in 2004/2005 winter. Acta Meteorologica Sinica, 65, 695–707. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  31. Ding, Y. H., Z. Y. Wang, and Y. Sun, 2008: Inter-decadal variation of the summer precipitation in East China and its association with decreasing Asian summer monsoon. Part I: Observed evidences. Int. J. Climatol., 28, 1139–1161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Du, Z. C., R. H. Huang, G. Huang, and J. L. Chen, 2011: The characteristics of spatial and temporal distributions of convective rainfall and stratiform rainfall in the Asian monsoon region and their possible mechanisms. Chinese J. Atmos. Sci., 35, 993–1008. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  33. Enomoto, T., B. J. Hoskins, and Y. Matsuda, 2003: The formation mechanism of the Bonin high in August. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 129, 157–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Feng, J., L. Wang, W. Chen, S. Fong, and K. Leong, 2010: Different impacts of two types of Pacific Ocean warming on the Southeast Asian rainfall during boreal winter. J. Geophys. Res., 115, D24122, doi: 10.1029/2010JD014761.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fu, Y. F., Y. H. Lin, G. S. Liu, and Q. Wang, 2003: Seasonal characteristics of precipitation in 1998 over East Asia as derived from TRMM PR. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 20, 511–529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gong, D. Y., S. W. Wang, and J. H. Zhu, 2001: East Asian winter monsoon and Arctic Oscillation. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 2073–2076.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gong, D. Y., and C. H. Ho, 2003: Arctic oscillation signals in the East Asian summer monsoon. J. Geophys. Res., 108, doi: 10.1029/2002JD002193.Google Scholar
  38. Gu, L., K. Wei, and R. H. Huang, 2008: Severe disaster of blizzard, freezing rain and low temperature in January 2008 in China and its association with the anomalies of East Asian monsoon system. Climatic and Environmental Research, 13, 405–418. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  39. Hartmann, D. L., H. H. Hendon, and R. A. Houze, 1984: Some implications of the mesoscale circulations in tropical cloud clusters for large-scale dynamics and climate. J. Atmos. Sci., 41, 113–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. He, H. Y., C. H. Sui, M. Q. Jian, Z. P. Wen, and G. D. Lan, 2003: The evolution of tropospheric temperature field and its relationship with the onset of Asian summer monsoon. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 81, 1201–1223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hong, C. C., and T. Li, 2009: The extreme cold anomaly over Southeast Asia in February 2008: Roles of ISO and ENSO. J. Climate, 22, 3786–3801.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hsu, H. H., and S. M. Lin, 2007: Asymmetry of the tripole rainfall pattern during the east Asian summer. J. Climate, 20, 4443–4458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Huang, G., and K. M. Hu, 2008: Impact of North Indian Ocean SSTA on Northwest Pacific lower layer anomalous anticyclone in summer. Journal of Nanjing Institute of Meteorology, 31, 749–757. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  44. Huang, G., K. M. Hu, and S. P. Xie, 2010: Strengthening of tropical Indian Ocean teleconnection to the Northwest Pacific since the mid-1970s: An atmospheric GCM study. J. Climate, 23, 5294–5304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Huang, G., X. Qu, and K. M. Hu, 2011a: The impact of the tropical Indian Ocean on South Asian high in boreal summer. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 28, 421–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Huang, G., Y. Liu, and R. H. Huang, 2011b: The interannual variability of summer rainfall in the arid and semiarid regions of northern China and its association with the Northern Hemisphere circumglobal teleconnection. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 28, 257–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Huang, P., and R. Huang, 2009: Relationship between the modes of winter tropical Pacific SSTAs and the intraseasonal variations of the following summer rainfall anomalies in China. Atmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters, 2, 295–300.Google Scholar
  48. Huang, R. H., 1984: The characteristics of the forced stationary planetary wave propagations in summer Northern Hemisphere. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 1, 84–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Huang, R. H., 1985: The numerical simulation of the three-dimensional teleconnections in the summer circulation over the Northern Hemisphere. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 2, 81–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Huang, R. H., 2006: Progresses in research on the formation mechanism and prediction theory of severe climatic disasters in China. Advances in Earth Science, 21, 564–575. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  51. Huang, R. H., 2009: Recent progresses in studies of variations and anomalies of East Asian monsoon (EAM) climate system and formation mechanism of severe climate disasters in China. Bulletin of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, 23, 222–225. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  52. Huang, R. H., and K. Gambo, 1982a: The response of a hemispheric multilevel model atmosphere to forcing by topography and stationary heat-sources. 1. Forcing by topography. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 60, 78–92.Google Scholar
  53. Huang, R. H., and K. Gambo, 1982b: The response of a hemispheric multilevel model atmosphere to forcing by topography and stationary heat-sources. 2. Forcing by stationary heat-sources and forcing by topography and stationary heat-sources. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 60, 93–108.Google Scholar
  54. Huang, R. H., and W. J. Li, 1987: Influence of the heat source anomaly over the tropical western Pacific on the subtropical high over East Asia. Proc. Int. Conf. on the General Circulation of East Asia, Chengdu, 40–51.Google Scholar
  55. Huang, R. H., and W. J. Li, 1988: Influence of heat source anomaly over the western tropical Pacific on the subtropical high over East Asia and its physical mechanism. Chinese J. Atmos. Sci., 12, 107–116. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  56. Huang, R. H., and Y. F. Wu, 1989: The influence of ENSO on the summer climate change in China and its mechanism. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 6, 21–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Huang, R. H., and F. Y. Sun, 1992: Impacts of the tropical western Pacific on the East Asian summer monsoon. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 70, 243–256.Google Scholar
  58. Huang, R. H., and L. T. Zhou, 2002: Research on the characteristics, formation mechanism and prediction of severe climatic disasters in China. Journal of Natural Disasters, 1, 1–9. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  59. Huang, R. H., and L. Wang, 2006: Interdecadal variation of Asian winter monsoon and its association with the planetary wave activity. Proc. Symposium on Asian Monsoon, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 126.Google Scholar
  60. Huang, R. H., and J. L. Chen, 2010: Characteristics of the summertime water vapor transports over the eastern part of China and those over the western part of China and their difference. Chinese J. Atmos. Sci., 34, 1035–1045. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  61. Huang, R. H., Z. Z. Zhang, G. Huang, and B. H. Ren, 1998a: Characteristics of the water vapor transport in East Asian monsoon region and its difference from that in South Asian monsoon region in summer Chinese J. Atmos. Sci., 22, 460–469. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  62. Huang, R. H., Y. H. Xu, P. F. Wang, and L. T. Zhou, 1998b: The features of the catastrophic flood over the Changjiang River Basin during the summer of 1998 and cause exploration. Climatic and Environmental Research, 3, 300–313. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  63. Huang, R. H., Y. H. Xu, and L. T. Zhou, 1999: The interdecadal variation of summer precipitations in China and the drought trend in North China. Plateau Meteorology, 18, 465–476. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  64. Huang, R. H., L. T. Zhou, and W. Chen, 2003: The progresses of recent studies on the variabilities of the East Asian monsoon and their causes. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 20, 55–69.Google Scholar
  65. Huang, R. H., G. Huang, and Z. G. Wei, 2004a: Climate variations of the summer monsoon over China. East Asian Monsoon, Chang, Ed., World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., Singapore, 213–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Huang, R. H., W. Chen, B. L. Yang, and R. H. Zhang, 2004b: Recent advances in studies of the interaction between the East Asian winter and summer monsoons and ENSO cycle. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 21, 407–424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Huang, R. H., L. Gu, Y. H. Xu, Q. L. Zhang, S. S. Wu, and J. Cao, 2005: Characteristics of the interannual variations of onset and advance of the East Asian summer monsoon and their associations with thermal states of the tropical western Pacific. Chinese J. Atmos. Sci., 29, 20–36. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  68. Huang, R. H., R. S. Cai, J. L. Chen, and L. T. Zhou, 2006a: Interdecaldal variations of drought and flooding disasters in China and their association with the East Asian climate system. Chinese J. Atmos. Sci., 30, 730–743. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  69. Huang, R. H., J. L. Chen, G. Huang, and Q. L. Zhang, 2006b: The quasi-biennial oscillation of summer monsoon rainfall in China and its cause. Chinese J. Atmos. Sci., 30, 545–560. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  70. Huang, R. H., L. Gu, L. T. Zhou, and S. S. Wu, 2006c: Impact of the thermal state of the tropical western Pacific on onset date and process of the South China Sea summer monsoon. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 23, 909–924, doi: 10.1007/s00376-006-0909-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Huang, R. H., J. L. Chen, and G. Huang, 2007a: Characteristics and variations of the East Asian monsoon system and its impacts on climate disasters in China. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 24, 993–1023, doi: 10.1007/s00376-007-0993-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Huang, R. H., K. Wei, J. L. Chen, and W. Chen, 2007b: The East Asian winter monsoon anomalies in the winters of 2005 and 2006 and their relations to the quasi-stationary planetary wave activity in the northern hemisphere. Chinese J. Atmos. Sci., 31, 1033–1048. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  73. Huang, R. H., L. Gu, J. L. Chen, and G. Huang, 2008: Recent progresses in studies of the temporal-spatial variations of the East Asian monsoon system and their impacts on climate anomalies in China. Chinese J. Atmos. Sci., 32, 691–719. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  74. Huang, R. H., J. L. Chen, and Y. Liu, 2011c: Interdecadal variation of the leading modes of summertime precipitation anomalies over Eastern China and its association with water vapor transport over East Asia. Chinese J. Atmos. Sci., 35, 589–606. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  75. Huang, R. H., Y. Liu, and T. Feng, 2012a: Characteristics and causes of the interecadal jump of summertime monsoon rainfall and circulation in eastern China occurred in the late 1990s. Chinese Sci. Bull.. (in press)Google Scholar
  76. Huang, R. H., Y. Liu, L. Wang, and L. Wang, 2012b: Analyses of the causes of severe drought occurred in Southwest China from the fall of 2009 to the spring to 2010. Chinese J. Atmos. Sci., 36, 443–457. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  77. Iguchi, T., T. Kozu, R. Meneghini, J. Awaka, and K. Okamoto, 2000: Rain-profiling algorithm for the TRMM precipitation radar. J. Appl. Meteor., 39, 2038–2052.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Jhun, J. G., and E. J. Lee, 2004: A new East Asian winter monsoon index and associated characteristics of the winter monsoon. J. Climate, 17, 711–726.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Kalnay, E., and Coauthors, 1996: The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 77, 437–471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Kang, L. H., W. Chen, and K. Wei, 2006: The Interdecadal Variation of Winter Temperature in China and Its Relation to the Anomalies in Atmospheric General Circulation. Climatic and Environmental Research, 11, 330–339. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  81. Kang, L. H., W. Chen, L. Wang, and L. J. Chen, 2009: Interannual variations of winter temperature in China and their relationship with the atmospheric circulation and sea surface temperature. Climatic and Environmental Research, 14, 45–53. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  82. Kosaka, Y., and H. Nakamura, 2006: Structure and dynamics of the summertime Pacific-Japan teleconnection pattern. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 132, 2009–2030.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Kosaka, Y., and H. Nakamura, 2010: Mechanisms of Meridional Teleconnection Observed between a Summer Monsoon System and a Subtropical Anticyclone. Part I: The Pacific-Japan Pattern. J. Climate, 23, 5085–5108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Kurihara, K., 1989: A climatological study on the relationship between the Japanese summer weather and the subtropical high in the western northern Pacific. Geophys. Mag., 43, 45–104.Google Scholar
  85. Kwon, M., J. G. Jhun, and K. J. Ha, 2007: Decadal change in east Asian summer monsoon circulation in the mid-1990s. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L21706, doi: 21710.21029/22007GL031977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Lau, K. M., and C. P. Chang, 1987: Planetary scale aspects of the winter monsoon and atmospheric teleconnections. Monsoon Meteorology, Chang and Krishnamurti, Eds., Oxford University Press, Oxford, 161–201.Google Scholar
  87. Li, S. L., J. Lu, G. Huang, and K. M. Hu, 2008: Tropical Indian Ocean basin warming and East Asian summer monsoon: A multiple AGCM study. J. Climate, 21, 6080–6088.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Li, X. Z., Z. P. Wen, and W. Zhou, 2011: Long-term Change in Summer Water Vapor Transport over South China in Recent Decades. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 89A, 271–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Li, Y. Q., and S. Yang, 2010: A dynamical index for the East Asian winter monsoon. J. Climate, 23, 4255–4262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Liang, J. Y., and S. S. Wu, 2002: A study of southwest monsoon onset date over the South China Sea and its impact factors. Chinese J. Atmos. Sci., 26, 829–844. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  91. Lin, Z. D., and R. Y. Lu, 2005: Interannual meridional displacement of the east Asian upper-tropospheric jet stream in summer. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 22, 199–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Lin, Z. D., and R. Y. Lu, 2008: Abrupt northward jump of the East Asian upper-tropospheric jet stream in mid-summer. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 86, 857–866.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Liu, P., and Y. F. Fu, 2010: Climatic characteristics of summer convective and stratiform precipitation in Southern China based on measurements by TRMM precipitation radar. Chinese J. Atmos. Sci., 34, 802–814. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  94. Lu, M. M., and C. P. Chang, 2009: Unusual late-season cold surges during the 2005 Asian winter monsoon: Roles of Atlantic blocking and the Central Asian anticyclone. J. Climate, 22, 5205–5217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Lu, R. Y., 2004: Associations among the components of the east Asian summer monsoon system in the meridional direction. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 82, 155–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Lu, R. Y., and B. J. Kim, 2004: The climatological Rossby wave source over the STCZs in the summer northern hemisphere. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 82, 657–669.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Lu, R. Y., and Z. D. Lin, 2009: Role of subtropical precipitation anomalies in maintaining the summertime meridional teleconnection over the western North Pacific and East Asia. J. Climate, 22, 2058–2072.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Lu, R. Y., J. H. Oh, and B. J. Kim, 2002: A teleconnection pattern in upper-level meridional wind over the North African and Eurasian continent in summer. Tellus (A), 54, 44–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Lu, R. Y., Y. Li, and B. W. Dong, 2006: External and internal summer atmospheric variability in the western North Pacific and East Asia. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 84, 447–462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Ma, X. Q., Y. H. Ding, H. Xu, and J. H. He, 2008: The relation between strong cold waves and low-frequency waves during the winter of 2004/2005. Chinese J. Atmos. Sci., 32, 380–394. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  101. Nitta, T., 1987: Convective activities in the tropical western Pacific and their impact on the Northern Hemisphere summer circulation. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 65, 373–390.Google Scholar
  102. Sun, X. G., and X. Q. Yang, 2005: Numerical modeling of interannual anomalous atmospheric circulation patterns over East Asia during different stages of an El Niño event. Chinese Journal of Geophysics, 48, 501–510. (in Chinese)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Tao, S. Y., and F. K. Zhu, 1964: The 100-mb flow patterns in southern Asia in summer and its relation to the advance and retreat of the West-Pacific subtropical anticyclone over the far east. Acta Meteorologica Sinica, 34, 385–396. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  104. Tao, S. Y., and L. X. Chen, 1985: The East Asian summer monsoon. Proc.Int. Conf. on Monsoon in the Far East, Tokyo, 1–11.Google Scholar
  105. Tao, S. Y., and L. X. Chen, 1987: A review of recent research on the East Asia summer monsoon in China. Monsoon Meteorology, Chang and Krishnamurti, Eds., Oxford University Press, Oxford, 60–92.Google Scholar
  106. Tao, S. Y., and J. Wei, 2006: The westward, northward advance of the subtropical high over the West Pacific in summer. J. Appl. Meteor. Sci., 17, 513–525.Google Scholar
  107. Thompson, D. W. J., and J. M. Wallace, 1998: The Arctic Oscillation signature in the wintertime geopotential height and temperature fields. Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 1297–1300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Thompson, D. W. J., and J. M. Wallace, 2000: Annular modes in the extratropical circulation. Part I:Monthto-month variability. J. Climate, 13, 1000–1016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Trenberth, K. E., and J. W. Hurrell, 1994: Decadal atmosphere-ocean variations in the Pacific. Climate Dyn., 9, 303–319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Tu, C. W., and S. S. Huang, 1944: The advance and retreat of the summer monsoon. Acta Meteorologica Sinica, 18, 82–92. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  111. Uppala, S. M., and Coauthors, 2005: The ERA-40 reanalysis. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 131, 2961–3012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Wallace, J. M., and D. S. Gutzler, 1981: Teleconnections in the Geopotential Height Field during the Northern Hemisphere Winter. Mon. Wea. Rev., 109, 784–812.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Wang, B., R. G. Wu, and K. M. Lau, 2001: Interannual variability of the Asian summer monsoon: Contrasts between the Indian and the western North Pacific-East Asian monsoons, J. Climate, 14, 4073–4090.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Wang, B., R. G. Wu, and T. Li, 2003: Atmospherewarm ocean interaction and its impacts on Asian-Australian monsoon variation. J. Climate, 16, 1195–1211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Wang, B., Lin Ho, Y. S. Zhang, and M. M. Lu, 2004: Definition of South China Sea monsoon onset and commencement of the East Asia summer monsoon. J. Climate, 17, 699–710.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Wang, B., Z. W. Wu, C. P. Chang, J. Liu, J. P. Li, and T. J. Zhou, 2010: Another Look at Interannualto-Interdecadal Variations of the East Asian Winter Monsoon: The Northern and Southern Temperature Modes. J. Climate, 23, 1495–1512.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Wang, L., W. Chen, and R. H. Huang, 2007: Changes in the variability of North Pacific Oscillation around 1975/1976 and its relationship with East Asian winter climate. J. Geophys. Res., 112, doi: 10.1029/2006JD008054.Google Scholar
  118. Wang, L., W. Chen, and R. H. Huang, 2008: Interdecadal modulation of PDO on the impact of ENSO on the east Asian winter monsoon. Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, doi: 10.1029/2008GL035287.Google Scholar
  119. Wang, L., W. Chen, W. Zhou, and R. H. Huang, 2009a: Interannual variations of East Asian trough axis at 500 hPa and its association with the East Asian winter monsoon pathway. J. Climate, 22, 600–614.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Wang, L., R. H. Huang, L. Gu, W. Chen, and L. H. Kang, 2009b: Interdecadal variations of the East Asian winter monsoon and their association with quasistationary planetary wave activity. J. Climate, 22, 4860–4872.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Wang, L., and W. Chen, 2010a: How well do existing indices measure the strength of the East Asian winter monsoon? Adv. Atmos. Sci., 27, 855–870.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Wang, L., and W. Chen, 2010b: Downward Arctic Oscillation signal associated with moderate weak stratospheric polar vortex and the cold December 2009. Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, doi: 10.1029/2010gl042659.Google Scholar
  123. Wang, L., and J. Feng, 2011: Two major modes of the wintertime precipitation over China. Chinese J. Atmos. Sci., 35, 1105–1116. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  124. Wang, L., and R. Wu, 2012: The in-phase transition from the East Asian winter to summer monsoon: Role of the Indian Ocean. J. Geophys. Res., 117, D11112, doi: 10.1029/2012JD017509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Wang, Z. Y., and Y. H. Ding, 2006: Climate change of the cold wave frequency of China in the last 53 years and the possible reasons. Chinese J. Atmos. Sci., 30, 1068–1076. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  126. Webster, P. J., V. O. Magaña, T. N. Palmer, J. Shukla, R. A. Tomas, M. Yanai, and T. Yasunari, 1998: Monsoons: Processes, predictability, and the prospects for prediction. J. Geophys. Res., 103, 14451–14510.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Wei, K., W. Chen, and W. Zhou, 2011: Changes in the East Asian Cold Season since 2000. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 28, 69–79, doi: 10.1007/s00376-010-9232-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Wei, Z. G., R. H. Huang, W. Chen, and W. J. Dong, 2002: Spatial distributions and interdecadal variations of the snow at the Tibetan Plateau weather stations. Chinese J. Atmos. Sci., 26, 496–508. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  129. Wei, Z. G., R. H. Huang, and W. J. Dong, 2003: Interannual and interdecadal variations of air temperature and precipitation over the Tibetan Plateau. Chinese J. Atmos. Sci., 27, 157–170. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  130. Wen, M., S. Yang, A. Kumar, and P. Q. Zhang, 2009: An analysis of the large-scale climate anomalies associated with the snowstorms affecting China in January 2008. Mon. Wea. Rev., 137, 1111–1131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Wen, Z. P., R. H. Huang, H. Y. He, and G. D. Lan, 2006: The influences of anomalous atmospheric circulation over mid-high latitudes and the activities of 30-60d low frequency convection over low latitudes on the onset of the South China Sea summer monsoon. Chinese J. Atmos. Sci., 30, 952–964. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  132. Weng, H. Y., K. Ashok, S. K. Behera, S. A. Rao, and T. Yamagata, 2007: Impacts of recent El Niño Modoki on dry/wet conditions in the Pacific rim during boreal summer. Climate Dyn., 29, 113–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Wu, B. Y., and J. Wang, 2002: Winter Arctic Oscillation, Siberian High and East Asian winter monsoon. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29, doi: 10.1029/2002GL015373.Google Scholar
  134. Wu, B. Y., R. H. Zhang, and R. D’Arrigo, 2006: Distinct modes of the East Asian winter monsoon. Mon. Wea. Rev., 134, 2165–2179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Wu, B. Y., K. Yang, and R. H. Zhang, 2009: Eurasian snow cover variability and its association with summer rainfall in China. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 26, 31–44, doi: 10.1007/s00376-009-0031-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Wu, G. X., and Y. S. Zhang, 1998: Tibetan Plateau forcing and the timing of the monsoon onset over South Asia and the South China Sea. Mon. Wea. Rev., 126, 913–927.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Wu, R. G., Z. P. Wen, S. Yang, and Y. Q. Li, 2010: An interdecadal change in Southern China summer rainfall around 1992/93. J. Climate, 23, 2389–2403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Xie, S. P., K. M. Hu, J. Hafner, H. Tokinaga, Y. Du, G. Huang, and T. Sampe, 2009: Indian Ocean capacitor effect on Indo-Western Pacific climate during the summer following El Niño. J. Climate, 22, 730–747.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Xu, G. Y., X. Q. Yang, and X. G. Sun, 2005: Interdecadal and interannual variation characteristics of rainfall in North China and its relation with the northern hemisphere atmospheric circulations. Chinese Journal of Geophysics, 48, 511–518. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  140. Yang, J. L., Q. Y. Liu, S. P. Xie, Z. Y. Liu, and L. X. Wu, 2007: Impact of the Indian Ocean SST basin mode on the Asian summer monsoon. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, doi: 10.1029/2006GL028571.Google Scholar
  141. Yang, S., K. M. Lau, and K. M. Kim, 2002: Variations of the East Asian jet stream and Asian-Pacific-American winter climate anomalies. J. Climate, 15, 306–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Yang, X. Q., and Y. M. Zhu, 2008: Interdecadal climate variability in China associated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. Chapter 3, Regional Climate Studies in China, Fu et al., Eds., Springer, 97–118.Google Scholar
  143. Yang, X. Q., Q. Xie, Y.M. Zhu, X. G. Sun, and Y. J. Guo, 2005: Decadal-to-interdecadal variability of precipitation in North China and associated atmospheric and oceanic anomaly patterns. Chinese Journal of Geophysics, 48, 789–797. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  144. Yasunari, T., and R. Suppiah, 1988: Some problems on the interannual variability of Indonesian monsoon rainfall. Tropical Rainfall Measurements, Theon and Fugono, Eds., Deepak, Hampton, Va, 113–112.Google Scholar
  145. Ye, D. Z., and Y. X. Gao, 1979: Tibetan Plateau Meteorology. Science Press, Beijing, 279pp. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  146. Ye, H., and R. Y. Lu, 2011: Subseasonal variation in ENSO-related East Asian rainfall anomalies during summer and its role in weakening the relationship between the ENSO and summer rainfall in Eastern China since the late 1970s. J. Climate, 24, 2271–2284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Yi, M. J., Y. J. Chen, R. J. Zhou, and S. M. Deng, 2009: Analysis on isentropic potential vorticity for the snow calamity in South China and the stratospheric polar vortex in 2008. Plateau Meteorology, 28, 880–888. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  148. Zhang, P. Q., S. Yang, and V. E. Kousky, 2005: South Asian high and Asian-Pacific-American climate teleconnection. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 22, 915–923.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Zhang, Q., G. X. Wu, and Y. F. Qian, 2002: The bimodality of the 100 hPa South Asia High and its relationship to the climate anomaly over East Asia in summer. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 80, 733–744.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Zhang, Q. Y., J. M. Lü, and L. M. Yang, 2007: The interdecadal variation of precipitation pattern over China during summer and its relationship with the atmospheric internal dynamic processes and extra-forcing factors. Chinese J. Atmos. Sci., 31, 1290–1300. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  151. Zhang, R. H., and R. H. Huang, 1998: Dynamical roles of zonal wind stresses over the tropical Pacific on the occurring and vanishing of El Niño. Part I: Diagnostic and theoretical analyses. Chinese J. Atmos. Sci., 22, 587–599. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  152. Zhang, R. H., A. Sumi, and M. Kimoto, 1996: Impact of El Niño on the East Asian monsoon: A diagnostic study of the’ 86/87 and’ 91/92 events. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 74, 49–62.Google Scholar
  153. Zhang, R. H., B. Y. Wu, P. Zhao, and J. P. Han, 2008: The decadal shift of the summer climate in the late 1980s over Eastern China and its possible causes. Acta Meteorologica Sinica, 22, 435–445.Google Scholar
  154. Zhang, Z. H., and G. Huang, 2008: Different types of El Niño events and their relationships with China summer climate anomaly. Journal of Nanjing Institute of Meteorology, 31, 782–789. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  155. Zhao, P., X. D. Zhang, Y. F. Li, and J. M. Chen, 2009: Remotely modulated tropical-North Pacific oceanatmosphere interactions by the South Asian high. Atmospheric Research, 94, 45–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Zhou, L. T., 2010: Characteristics of temporal and spatial variations of sensible heat flux in the arid and semiarid region of Eurasia. Transactions of Atmospheric Sciences, 33, 299–306. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  157. Zhou, L. T., 2011: Impact of East Asian winter monsoon on rainfall over southeastern China and its dynamical process. Int. J. Climatol., 31, 677–686.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Zhou, L. T., and R. H. Huang, 2006: Characterisitcs of the interdecadal variability of difference between surface temperature and surface air temperature in spring in the arid and semi-arid region of Northwest China and its impact on summer precipitation in North China. Climatic and Environmental Research, 11, 1–13. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  159. Zhou, L. T., and R. H. Huang, 2008: Interdecadal variability of sensible heat in arid and semi-arid regions of Northwest China and its relation to summer precipitation in China. Chinese J. Atmos. Sci., 32, 1276–1288. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  160. Zhou, L. T., and R. H. Huang, 2010: Interdecadal variability of summer rainfall in Northwest China and its possible causes. Int. J. Climatol., 30, 549–557.Google Scholar
  161. Zhou, X. X., Y. H. Ding, and P. X. Wang, 2010: Moisture Transport in the Asian Summer Monsoon Region and Its Relationship with Summer Precipitation in China. Acta Meteorologica Sinica, 24, 31–42.Google Scholar
  162. Zhu, K. Z., 1934: The enigma of southeast monsoon in China. Acta Geographica Sinica, 1, 1–28. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  163. Zhu, Y. M., and X. Q. Yang, 2003: Relationships between Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and climate variabilities in China. Acta Meteorologica Sinica, 61, 641–654. (in Chinese)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Chinese National Committee for International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Science Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ronghui Huang (黄荣辉)
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jilong Chen (陈际龙)
    • 1
  • Lin Wang (王 林)
    • 1
  • Zhongda Lin (林中达)
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for Monsoon System Research, Institute of Atmospheric PhysicsChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations