Advances in Atmospheric Sciences

, Volume 27, Issue 5, pp 1131–1142 | Cite as

An introduction to the coupled model FGOALS1.1-s and its performance in East Asia

  • Qing Bao (包 庆)
  • Guoxiong Wu (吴国雄)
  • Yimin Liu (刘屹岷)
  • Jing Yang (杨 静)
  • Zaizhi Wang (王在志)
  • Tianjun Zhou (周天军)


The spectral version 1.1 of the Flexible Global Ocean-atmosphere-land System (FGOALS1.1-s) model was developed in the State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics at the Institute of Atmospheric Physics (LASG/IAP). This paper reports the major modifications to the physical parameterization package in its atmospheric component, including the radiation scheme, convection scheme, and cloud scheme. Furthermore, the simulation of the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) by FGOALS1.1-s is examined, both in terms of climatological mean state and interannual variability.

The results indicate that FGOALS1.1-s exhibits significant improvements in the simulation of the balance of energy at the top of the atmosphere: the net radiative energy flux at the top was 0.003 W m−2 in the 40 years fully coupled integration. The distribution of simulated sea surface temperature was also quite reasonable, without obvious climate drift. FGOALS1.1-s is also capable of capturing the major features of the climatological mean state of the EASM: major rainfall maximum centers, the annual cycle of precipitation, and the lower-level monsoon circulation flow were highly consistent with observations in the EASM region.

Regarding interannual variability, simulation of the EASM leading patterns and their relationship with sea surface temperature was examined. The results show that FGOALS1.1-s can reproduce the first leading pattern of the EASM and its close relationship with the decaying phase of the ENSO. However, the model lacked the ability to capture either the second major mode of the EASMor its relationship with the developing phase of the ENSO.

Key words

East Asian Summer Monsoon ocean-atmosphere-land model climatological mean state interannual variability ENSO 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bao, Q., Y. Liu, T. Zhou, Z. Wang, G. Wu, and P. Wang, 2006: The sensitivity of the Spectral Atmospheric General Circulation Model of LASG/IAP to the land process. Chinese J. Atmos. Sci., 30, 1077–1090. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  2. Bonan, G. B., K.W. Oleson, M. Vertenstein, and S. Levis, 2002: The land surface climatology of the Community Land Model coupled to the NCAR Community Climate Model. J. Climate, 15, 3123–3149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Brinkop, S., and E. Roeckner, 1995: Sensitivity of a general-circulation model to parameterizations of cloud-turbulence interactions in the atmospheric boundary-layer. Tellus (A), 47, 197–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Dai, F., R. Yu, X. Zhang, and Y. Yu, 2005: A statistical low-level cloud scheme and its tentative application in a general circulation model. Acta Meteorologica Sinica, 19, 263–274.Google Scholar
  5. Edwards, J. M., and A. Slingo, 1996: A studies with a flexible new radiation code. I: Choosing a configuration for a large-scale model. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc, 122, 689–720.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Fu, X. H., and B. Wang, 2003: Influences of continental monsoons and air-sea coupling on the climate of the equatorial Pacific. J. Climate, 16, 3132–3152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Guo, L. L., Y. Zhang, B. Wang, L. Li, T. Zhou, and Q. Bao, 2008: Simulations of the East Asian Subtropical Westerly Jet by LASG/IAP AGCMs. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 25(3), 447–457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Kalnay, E., and Coauthors, 1996: The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 77, 437–471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Kiehl, J. T., and P. R. Gent, 2004: The Community Climate System Model, Version 2. J. Climate, 17, 3666–3682.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Li, J., Y. Liu, Z. Sun and G. Wu, 2009: The impacts of the radiation and cumulus convective parameterization on the radiation fluxes in SAMIL. Acta Meteorologica Sinica, 67(3), 355–356. (in Chinese)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Liu, H., and G. X. Wu, 1997: Impacts of land surface on climate of July and onset of summer monsoon: A study with an AGCM plus SSiB. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 14, 289–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Liu, H. L., X. Zhang, W. Li, Y. Yu, and R. Yu, 2004: An eddy-permitting oceanic general circulation model and its preliminary evaluations. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 21, 675–690.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Liu, J., B. Wang, and J. Yang, 2008: Forced and internal modes of variability of the East Asian summer monsoon. Climate of the Past, 4, 645–666.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Liu, Y., K. Liu, and G. X. Wu, 2007: The impacts of the cumulus convective parameterization on the atmospheric water-content and rainfall simulation in SAMIL. Chinese J. Atmos. Sci., 31(6), 1201–1211. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  15. Ma, C. C., C. R. Mechoso, A. W. Robertson, and A. Arakawa, 1996: Peruvian stratus clouds and the tropical Pacific circulation: A coupled ocean-atmosphere GCM study. J. Climate, 9, 1635–1645.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Mechoso, C. R., and Coauthors, 1995: The seasonal cycle over the tropical Pacific in coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation models. Mon. Wea. Rev., 123, 2825–2838.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Nordeng, T. E., 1994: Extended versions of the convective parameterization scheme at ECMWF and their impact on the mean and transient activity of the model in the tropics. ECMWF Technical Memo. 206, Reading, England, 41pp.Google Scholar
  18. Palmer, T. N., G. J. Shutts, and R. Swinbank, 1986: Alleviation of a systematic westerly bias in general circulation and numerical weather prediction models through an orographic gravity wave drag parameterization. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 112, 1001–1039.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Rayner, N. A., D. E. Parker, E. B. Horton, C. K. Folland, L. V. Alexander, D. P. Rowell, E. C. Kent, and A. Kaplan, 2003: Global analyses of sea surface temperature, sea ice, and night marine air temperature since the late nineteenth century. J. Geophys. Res., 108(D14), 4407–4436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Song, X. L., 2005: The evaluation analysis of two kinds of mass flux cumulus parameterizations in climate simulation. Ph. D. dissertation, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 119–145. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  21. Sun, Z., 2005: Parameterizations of radiation and cloud optical properties. BMRC Research Report, 107–112.Google Scholar
  22. Sun, Z., and L. Rikus, 1999a: Improved application of ESFT to inhomogeneous atmosphere. J. Geophys. Res., 104, 6291–6303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Sun, Z., and L. Rikus, 1999b: Parameterization of effective radius of cirrus clouds and its verification against observations. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 125, 3037–3056.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Takemura, T., H. Okamoto, Y. Maruyama, A. Numaguti, A. Higurashi, and T. Nakajima, 2000: Global three-dimensional simulation of aerosol optical thickness distribution of various origins. J. Geophys. Res., 105, 17853–17873.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Tiedtke, M., 1989: A comprehensive mass flux scheme for cumulus parameterization in large-scale models. Mon. Wea. Rev., 117, 1779–1800.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Wang, B., 1992: The vertical structure and development of the ENSO anomaly mode during 1979–1989. J. Atmos. Sci., 49(8), 698–712.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Wang, B., H. Wan, and Z. Ji, 2004: Design of a new dynamical core for global atmospheric models based on some efficient numerical methods. Science in China (A), 47, 4–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Wang, B., and Coauthors, 2005a: Fundamental challenge in simulation and prediction of summer monsoon rainfall. Geophys. Res. Letts., 32, L15711.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Wang, B., and Coauthors, 2008: How accurately do coupled climate models predict the Asian-Australian monsoon interannual variability? Climate Dyn., 30, 605–619.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Wang, Z., G. Wu, and P. Liu, 2005b: The development of GOALS/LASG AGCM and its global climatological features in climate simulation. I-Influence of horizontal resolution. Journal of Tropical Meteorology, 21, 225–237. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  31. Wang, Z., R. Yu, Q. Bao, T. Zhou, Y. Liu, P. Wang, and G. Wu, 2007: A comparison of the atmospheric circulations simulated by the FGOALS-s and SAMIL. Chinese J. Atmos. Sci., 31, 202–213. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  32. Wu, T., Z. Wang, Y. Liu, R. Yu, and G. Wu, 2004: An evaluation of the effects of cloud parameterization in the R42L9 GCM. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 21, 153–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Wu, G., H. Liu, Y. Zhao, and W. Li, 1996: A nine-layer atmospheric general circulation model and its performance. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 13(1), 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Wu, G., and Coauthors, 2007: The influence of mechanical and thermal forcing by the Tibetan Plateau on Asian climate. J. Hydrometeor, 8, 770–789.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Xie, P. P., and Coauthors, 2003: GPCP pentad precipitation analyses: An experimental dataset based on gauge observations and satellite estimates. J. Climate, 16, 2197–2214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Xue, Y. K., P. J. Sellers, J. L. Kinter, and J. Shukla, 1991: A simplified biosphere model for global climate studies. J. Climate, 4, 345–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Yu, Y., X. Zhang, and Y. Guo, 2004: Global coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation models in LASG/IAP. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 21, 444–455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Zhang, X., G. Shi, H. Liu, and Y. Yu, 2000: IAP Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System Model. Beijing, Science Press, 252pp.Google Scholar
  39. Zhou, T., Y. Yu, Z. Wang, and T. Wu, 2005: Impacts of Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Interactions over the East Asian Monsoon Region on the Climate in China. Vol. 4, Atmospheric Circulation Global Model (SAMIL) and the Coupled Model (FGOALS-s), Beijing, China Meteorological Press, 288pp. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  40. Zhou, T., B. Wu, and B. Wang, 2009: How well do atmospheric general circulation models capture the leading modes of the interannual variability of the Asian-Australian Monsoon? J. Climate, 22, 1159–1173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Chinese National Committee for International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Science Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Qing Bao (包 庆)
    • 1
  • Guoxiong Wu (吴国雄)
    • 1
  • Yimin Liu (刘屹岷)
    • 1
  • Jing Yang (杨 静)
    • 2
  • Zaizhi Wang (王在志)
    • 3
  • Tianjun Zhou (周天军)
    • 1
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Institute of Atmospheric PhysicsChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  2. 2.ESPREBeijing Normal UniversityBeijingChina
  3. 3.Beijing Climate CenterChina Meteorological AdministrationBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations