Modeling study of aerosol indirect effects on global climate with an AGCM
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- Wang, Z., Zhang, H., Shen, X. et al. Adv. Atmos. Sci. (2010) 27: 1064. doi:10.1007/s00376-010-9120-5
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Aerosol indirect effects (AIEs) on global climate were quantitatively investigated by introducing aerosol-cloud interaction parameterizations for water stratus clouds into an AGCM (BCC_AGCM2.0.1), which was developed by the National Climate Center of the China Meteorological Administration. The study yielded a global annual mean of −1.14 W m−2 for the first indirect radiative forcing (IRF), with an obvious seasonal change. In summer, large forcing mainly occurred in mid to high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere, whereas in winter, large values were found at 60°S. The second indirect effect led to global annual mean changes in net shortwave flux of −1.03 W m−2 at the top of the atmosphere (TOA), which was relatively significant in mid-latitude regions of both hemispheres. The total AIE reduced the global annual means of net shortwave flux at the TOA and of surface temperature by 1.93 W m−2 and 0.12 K, respectively. Change in surface temperature induced by the total AIE was clearly larger in the Northern Hemisphere (−0.23 K) than in the Southern Hemisphere, where changes were negligible. The interhemispheric asymmetry in surface cooling resulted in significant differences in changes of the interhemispheric annual mean precipitation rate, which could lead to a tendency for the ITCZ to broaden. The total AIE decreased the global annual mean precipitation rate by 0.055 mm d−1.