Advances in Atmospheric Sciences

, Volume 23, Issue 1, pp 69–79 | Cite as

An overview of MODIS radiometric calibration and characterization

  • Xiaoxiong Xiong
  • William Barnes
Article

Abstract

The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is one of the key instruments for NASA’s Earth Observing System (EOS), currently operating on both the Terra and Aqua satellites. The MODIS is a major advance over the previous generation of sensors in terms of its spectral, spatial, and temporal resolutions. It has 36 spectral bands: 20 reflective solar bands (RSB) with center wavelengths from 0.41 to 2.1 µm and 16 thermal emissive bands (TEB) with center wavelengths from 3.7 to 14.4 µm, making observations at three spatial resolutions: 250 m (bands 1–2), 500 m (bands 3–7), and 1km (bands 8–36). MODIS is a cross-track scanning radiometer with a wide field-of-view, providing a complete global coverage of the Earth in less than 2 days. Both Terra and Aqua MODIS went through extensive pre-launch calibration and characterization at various levels. In orbit, the calibration and characterization tasks are performed using its on-board calibrators (OBCs) that include a solar diffuser (SD) and a solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM), a v-grooved flat panel blackbody (BB), and a spectro-radiometric calibration assembly (SRCA). In this paper, we present au overview of MODIS calibration and characterization activities, methodologies, and lessons learned from pre-launch characterization and in-orbit operation. Key issues discussed in this paper include in-orbit efforts of monitoring the noise characteristics of the detectors, tracking the solar diffuser and optics degradations, and updating the sensor’s response versus scan angle. The experiences and lessons learned through MODIS have played and will continue to play major roles in the design and characterization of future sensors.

Key words

EOS remote sensing Terra Aqua MODIS sensor calibration radiometry 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Barnes, W. L., T. S. Pagano, and V. V. Salomonson, 1998: Pre-launch characteristics of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on EOS AM-1. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 36, 1088–1100.Google Scholar
  2. Barnes, W. L., X. Xiong, and V. V. Salomonson, 2002: Status of Terra MODIS and Aqua MODIS. Proc. IGARSS, Toronto, Canada, Vol. II, 970–972.Google Scholar
  3. Che, N., X. Xiong, and W. L. Barnes, 2003: On-orbit spectral characterization of the Terra MODIS reflective solar bands. Proc. SPIE-Earth Observing Systems VIII, 5151, 367–374.Google Scholar
  4. Guenther, B., G. D. Godden, X. Xiong, E. J. Knight, H. Montgomery, M. M. Hopkins, M. G. Khayat, and Z. Hao, 1998: Pre-launch algorithm and data format for the Level 1 calibration products for the EOS AM-1 Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 36, 1142–1151.Google Scholar
  5. Guenther, B., X. Xiong, V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, and J. Young, 2002: On-orbit performance of the Earth Observing System Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer: First year of data. Remote Sens. Environ., 83, 16–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Parkinson, C. L., 2003: Aqua: An Earth-observing satellite mission to examine water and other climate variables. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensi., 41, 173–183.Google Scholar
  7. Salomonson, V. V., W. L. Barnes, X. Xiong, S. Kempler, and E. Masuoka, 2002: An overview of the Earth Observing System MODIS instrument and associated data systems performance. Proceedings of IGARSS, Toronto, Canada.Google Scholar
  8. Sun, J., X. Xiong, B. Guenther, and W. L. Barnes, 2003: Radiometric stability monitoring of the MODIS reflective solar bands using the Moon. Metrologia, 40, 85–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Thome, K., J. Czapla-Myers, and S. Biggar, 2003: Vicarious calibration of Aqua and Terra MODIS. Proc. SPIE-Earth Observing Systems VIII, 5151, 395–405Google Scholar
  10. Wu, A., C. Cao, and X. Xiong, 2003: Inter-comparison of the 11 µm and 12 µm bands of Terra and Aqua MODIS using AVHRR/NOAA-16/17. Proc. SPIE-Earth Observing Systems VIII, 5151, 384–394Google Scholar
  11. Xiong, X., J. Esposito, J. Sun, C. Pan, B. Guenther, and W. L. Barnes, 2001: Degradation of MODIS optics and its reflective solar bands calibration. Proc. SPIE-Sensors, Systems, and Next Generation Satellite V, 4540, 62–70.Google Scholar
  12. Xiong, X., J. Sun, J. Esposito, B. Guenther, and W. L. Barnes, 2002a: MODIS reflective solar bands calibration algorithm and on-orbit performance. Proc. SPIE-Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds III, 4891, 95–104.Google Scholar
  13. Xiong, X., K. Chiang, B. Guenther, and W. L. Barnes, 2002b: MODIS thermal emissive bands calibration algorithm and on-orbit performance. Proc. SPIE-Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds III, 4891, 392–401.Google Scholar
  14. Xiong, X., J. Sun, K. Chiang, S. Xiong, and W. L. Barnes, 2002c: MODIS on-orbit characterization using the Moon. Proc. SPIE-Sensors, Systems, and Next Generation Satellites VI, 4881, 299–307Google Scholar
  15. Xiong, X., K. Chiang, J. Esposito, B. Guenther, and W. L. Barnes, 2003a: MODIS on-orbit calibration and characterization. Metrologia, 40, 89–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Xiong, X., J. Sun, J. Esposito, X. Liu, W. L. Barnes, and B. Guenther, 2003b: On-orbit characterization of a solar diffuser solar diffuser’s bi-directional reflectance factor reflectance factor using spacecraft maneuvers. Proc. SPIE-Earth Observing Systems VIII, 5151, 375–383.Google Scholar
  17. Xiong, X., K. Chiang, J. Sun, N. Che, and W. L. Barnes, 2003c: Aqua MODIS first year on-orbit calibration and performance. Proc. SPIE-Sensors, Systems, and Next Generation of Satellites IX, 5234, 391–399Google Scholar
  18. Xiong, X., W. L. Barnes, B. Guenther, and R. E. Murphy, 2003d: Lessons learned from MODIS calibration and characterization. Advances in Space Research, 32, 2017–2122.Google Scholar
  19. Xiong, X., N. Che, and W. L. Barnes, 2005a: Terra MODIS on-orbit spatial characterization and performance. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 43, 355–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Xiong, X., V. V. Salomonson, K. Chiang, A. Wu, B. Guenther, and W. L. Barnes, 2005a: On-orbit characterization of RVS for MODIS thermal emissive bands. Proc. SPIE-Passive Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds IV, 5652, 210–218.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Science Press 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xiaoxiong Xiong
    • 1
  • William Barnes
    • 2
  1. 1.Earth Sciences DirectorateNASA/Goddard Space Flight CenterGreenbeltUSA
  2. 2.University of MarylandBaltimore County, BaltimoreUSA

Personalised recommendations