Biology and Fertility of Soils

, Volume 54, Issue 1, pp 83–94 | Cite as

Utilisation of mucilage C by microbial communities under drought

  • Mutez A. Ahmed
  • Callum C. Banfield
  • Muhammad Sanaullah
  • Anna Gunina
  • Michaela A. Dippold
Original Paper


Root mucilage modulates soil-plant-water dynamics, but its interactions with microbial community functioning remain poorly understood. The aims of this study were to estimate (I) the impacts of mucilage and soil water content on the microbial community composition and (II) the mucilage consumption by individual microbial groups. C4 root mucilage from maize (at 40 and 200 μg C per gram dry soil, corresponding to 10 and 50% of soil microbial biomass, respectively) was added in single pulses to a C3 soil at two moisture levels: optimum (80% of water-holding capacity (WHC)) and drought (30% of WHC). After 15 days of incubation, the microbial community composition was studied by phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) analysis and incorporation of mucilage-derived 13C into individual microbial groups was determined by compound-specific isotope analysis. Microbial community composition remained largely unaffected by mucilage addition but was affected by moisture. Whereas an increase in water content reduced mucilage 13C recovery in PLFA for the low-dose mucilage amendment from 19 to 9%, it had no effect under the high-dose amendment (11–12%). This suggests that the role of mucilage for microbial functioning is especially pronounced under drought conditions. The fungal PLFA 18:2ω6,9 was present only under drought conditions, and fungi profited in their mucilage C utilisation from the lower competitiveness of many bacterial groups under drought. In this study, Gram-negatives (G−, characterised by PLFA 18:1ω9c, 18:1ω7c, 16:1ω7c and cy17:0) showed the highest mucilage-derived 13C in PLFA, especially at the high-dose amendment, suggesting them to be the major decomposers of mucilage, especially when the availability of this C source is high. Gram-positives (G+) included different sub-groups with distinct responses to moisture: G+ 1 (a15:0) were only competitive for mucilage C under drought, whereas G+ 3 (i17:0) were only able to utilise mucilage-derived C under optimal moisture conditions. During the 15-day incubation, they built up more than 40% of their membranes from mucilage-derived C, suggesting that in the case of high availability, mucilage can act as an important C source for this microbial group. However, under drought, G− 1 and fungi were incorporating the most mucilage C into their membranes (approx. 20% of PLFA-C). The observation that, for some groups, the high-dose mucilage amendments under drought led to higher 13C incorporation into PLFA than under optimum moisture suggests that mucilage can compensate drought effects for particular microbial groups. Thus, mucilage may not only act as a C source for microorganisms but may also mitigate drought effects for specific rhizosphere microbial groups.


Biofilms Compound-specific isotope labelling Extracellular Extreme climate events Polysaccharides Rhizodeposition Soil moisture 



We highly acknowledge DAAD and Alexander von Humboldt Foundation (AvH) for funding MAA and MS. Research was funded by DFG project “Mucilage: the hydraulic bridge between roots and soil” (CA 921/2-1), DFG KU 1184/29-1, INST 186/1006-1 /P and the Robert-Bosch Foundation in the framework of the Robert Bosch Junior Professorship to MD. We would like to thank the Centre for Stable Isotope Research and Analysis, Goettingen, for IRMS measurements and δ13C determinations. We would also like to thank the editor and two anonymous reviewers for their critical comments which improved the quality of the manuscript.

Supplementary material

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mutez A. Ahmed
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Callum C. Banfield
    • 3
  • Muhammad Sanaullah
    • 4
    • 5
  • Anna Gunina
    • 4
    • 6
  • Michaela A. Dippold
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Division of Soil HydrologyUniversity of GoettingenGoettingenGermany
  2. 2.Department of Agricultural EngineeringUniversity of KhartoumKhartoumSudan
  3. 3.Division of Biogeochemistry of AgroecosystemsUniversity of GoettingenGoettingenGermany
  4. 4.Agricultural Soil ScienceUniversity of GoettingenGoettingenGermany
  5. 5.Institute of Soil and Environmental SciencesUniversity of AgricultureFaisalabadPakistan
  6. 6.Department of Soil Biology and BiochemistryDokuchaev Soil Science InstituteMoscowRussian Federation

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