The effects of combinations of biochar, lime, and organic fertilizer on nitrification and nitrifiers
- 1k Downloads
Here, we report results from a field experiment investigating the application of biochars, lime, organic fertilizer, and their combinations. Soil pH was increased by ameliorants. Wheat biochar produced the largest increase, of approximately 2 pH units, and mixed treatment (one third rice husk biochar, one third lime, and one third organic fertilizer) also caused large increases, of almost 1 pH unit. There was strong evidence that the ratio of ammonia-oxidizing archaea to ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) abundance greatly increased with decreased soil pH, indicating that soil pH was an important factor affecting the abundance of AOB. High-throughput MiSeq sequencing showed that the soil ameliorants significantly increased the relative abundances of Nitrosomonas and Nitrospira. Soil pH was an important determinant of the bacterial community composition and diversity. Our study suggests that the ameliorants (biochar, lime, organic fertilizer, and their combinations) change soil nitrification by altering nitrifying bacteria abundance, diversity, and composition, caused by the changed soil pH.
KeywordsNitrification Bacteria Archaea Ameliorants Acid soil High-throughput sequencing
This study was supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (2014CB441002), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41301250), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities.
- Caporaso JG, Kuczynski J, Stombaugh J, Bittinger K, Bushman FD, Costello EK, Fierer N, Peña AG, Goodrich JK, Gordon JI, Huttley GA, Kelley ST, Knights D, Koenig JE, Ley RE, Lozupone CA, McDonald D, Muegge BD, Pirrung M, Reeder J, Sevinsky JR, Turnbaugh PT, Walters WA, Widmann J, Yatsunenko T, Zaneveld J, Knight R (2010) QIIME allows analysis of high-throughput community sequencing data. Nat Methods 7:335–336CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Hart SC, Stark JM, Davidson EA, Firestone MK (1994) Nitrogen mineralization, immobilization, and nitrification. Methods of soil analysis: Part 2—microbiological and biochemical properties. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, pp 985–1018Google Scholar
- Jo IS (1990) Effect of organic fertilizer on soil physical properties and plant growth. Technical Bulletin. ASPAC/FFTCGoogle Scholar
- Kamprath EJ (2010) Soil acidity and liming. In: Century of Soil Science. North Carolina, pp 103–107Google Scholar
- Maeda K, Toyoda S, Shimojima R, Osada T, Hanajima D, Morioka R, Yoshida N (2010) Source of nitrous oxide emissions during the cow manure composting process as revealed by isotopomer analysis of and amoA abundance in betaproteobacterial ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. Appl Environ Microbiol 76:1555–1562CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Pansu M, Gautheyrou J (2007) Handbook of soil analysis: mineralogical, organic and inorganic methods. Springer Science & Business Media, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Robertson GP, Sollins P, Ellis BG, Lajtha K (1999) Exchangeable ions, pH, and cation exchange capacity. Standard soil methods for long-term ecological research. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 106–114Google Scholar
- Sohi S, Lopez-Capel E, Krull E, Bol R (2009) Biochar, climate change and soil: a review to guide future research. CSIRO Glen Osmond, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
- Ulrich B, Sumner ME (1991) Soil acidity. Springer-Verlag, BerlinGoogle Scholar