Changes in the composition of native root arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities during a short-term cover crop-maize succession
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Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) establish mutualistic associations with the most important agricultural food and feed crops, sustaining plant growth, nutrient uptake and tolerance of biotic and abiotic stresses. Scanty information is available on the role played by crop identity and diversity as a driving force shaping AMF species communities in the field, in particular in low-input and organic farming, where crop rotation and the use of cover crops are common practices. Here, using a molecular approach, we investigated whether plant communities established in low and high diversity cover crop treatments affect the composition of native AMF root communities of subsequent maize in a Mediterranean organic agroecosystem. A total of 16 AMF sequence types were detected, with Acaulospora cavernata as the most abundant phylotype, accounting for 37.4 % of the sequences, followed by Funneliformis mosseae, Claroideoglomus lamellosum and Rhizoglomus intraradices. Sequences matching to Funneliformis caledonium, Diversispora aurantia, Diversispora epigaea and Archaeospora schenckii corresponded to less than 2.0 % of the total. The most abundant sequences retrieved in plants from cover crop treatments were represented by A. cavernata, while sequences in maize roots were related to F. mosseae, R. intraradices and Glomus sp. Such data show for the first time a change in the composition of native AMF communities colonizing maize roots, which was independent of the identity and diversity of the preceding crop. Our findings suggest that host preference may represent a strong driver of AMF community dynamics in agroecosystems, differentially boosting or depressing AMF species, possibly in relation to their functional significance.
KeywordsArbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Cover crop diversity AMF diversity Glomeromycota Small ribosomal subunit (SSU rDNA) Native AMF communities
This work was funded by the EU-RTD FP7 Project SOLIBAM (Strategies for Organic and Low-input Integrated Breeding and Management), GrantAgreement FP7-KBBE 245058, 2010–2014, by the University of Pisa and National Research Council. The PhD grant of E.M. Njeru was funded by the International PhD Programme in Agrobiodiversity of the Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna of Pisa, Italy. The authors wish to thank Giacomo Nardi and the CIRAA personnel for their precious help in carrying out the field experiment.
Authorship and contributorship
A.T., C.S., L.A. and M.G. conceived and designed the experiments. A.T. and C.S. performed molecular and data analyses. L.A. performed data analyses. A.T., L.A. and M.G. wrote the paper. P.B., G.B. and E.M.N. provided the experimental system and agronomic expertise, and revised the paper. M.G. contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools.
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