Enhanced non-extractable residue formation of 14C-metalaxyl catalyzed by an immobilized laccase
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We studied the influence of an immobilized laccase from Trametes versicolor on non-extractable residue (NER) formation of the systemic fungicide 14C-metalaxyl in soil. We added the enzyme (130 mU/g DW) to soil sterilized by gamma irradiation and observed that the amount of NER (6.3 % of applied radioactivity) after 10 days of incubation was enhanced about twofold compared to the sterile soil without laccase addition. Residues formed within samples without enhanced enzyme activity were mainly bound via ester linkages to all fractions of humic matter, i.e., fulvic acids, humic acids, non-humines, and humines, respectively. In contrast, residues formed in presence of immobilized laccase were more strongly bound by covalent linkages such as ether and C-C bonds, especially to humic acids. After chemical degradation of the humic matter, it could be observed that all NER contained the first major transformation product, i.e., metalaxyl acid. The findings underline that the residue formation of metalaxyl in soil may be partly catalyzed by immobilized extracellular oxidative enzymes through oxidative coupling reactions within the humic matter.
KeywordsNon-extractable residues Immobilized soil enzymes Metalaxyl Laccase
We wish to thank the German Research Foundation (DFG) for funding of the research unit (SPP1315: Biogeochemical interfaces in soil.
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