Biology and Fertility of Soils

, Volume 49, Issue 1, pp 41–49 | Cite as

Growth and rhizosphere P pools of legume–wheat rotations at low P supply

  • Hasnuri Mat HassanEmail author
  • Hasbullah Hasbullah
  • Petra Marschner
Original Paper


Legume pre-crops may increase P uptake of the following wheat, but the mechanisms behind this effect are unclear. A rotation study was carried out to assess the concentrations of rhizosphere P pools of three grain legumes and wheat (phase 1) and their effects on P uptake and P pools in the rhizosphere of the following wheat (phase 2). Faba bean, chickpea, white lupin and wheat were grown for 10 weeks in a loamy sand soil with low P availability. The following wheat was grown in the pre-crop soil with and without addition of pre-crop residues. Among the pre-crops, white lupin had the strongest effect on the P pools; it depleted the labile P pools, resin P and NaHCO3-Pi and also the less labile P pools, NaOH-Pi and residual P; whereas the concentration of NaHCO3-Po was higher than that in the rhizosphere of the other pre-crops. White lupin had a smaller biomass compared to faba bean which depleted the P pools to a lesser extent. Phosphorus uptake of the following wheat was greatest in white lupin pre-crop soil. Chickpea increased P uptake of the following wheat when residues were added. In the presence of residues, wheat after legumes depleted labile P pools to a greater extent than wheat after wheat, but this coincided with greater P uptake only in wheat after chickpea and white lupin, which may be explained by the small root biomass of wheat after faba bean. The results show that the greater P uptake of the following wheat induced by pre-crops may be due to two mechanisms: P mobilisation (white lupin) or P addition with legume residues (chickpea). This study further showed that P uptake by a crop is only partly a function of the depletion of P in the rhizosphere; another important factor is the ability to exploit a large soil volume.


Crop rotation Grain legumes P fractionation P uptake Pre-crops Wheat 



We thank Mr Colin Rivers for his help in collecting soil. The research was supported by the Australian Research Council and The University of Adelaide. HMH acknowledges the support from the Ministry of Higher Education, Malaysia and University Sains Malaysia for her studies.


  1. Brady NC, Weil RR (2002) The nature and properties of soils, 13th edn. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle Hall, New JerseyGoogle Scholar
  2. De Nobili M, Contin M, Mondini C, Brookes P (2001) Soil microbial biomass is triggered into activity by trace amounts of substrate. Soil Biol Biochem 33:1163–1170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Gerke J (1992) Phosphate, aluminium and iron in the soil solution of three different soils in relation to varying concentrations of citric acid. Zeitsch Pflanzenern Bdkde 155:339–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Hanson WC (1950) The photometric determination of phosphorus in fertilizers using the phosphovanado-molybdate complex. J Sci Food Agric 1:172–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Hedley MJ, Stewart JWB, Chauhan BS (1982) Changes in inorganic and organic soil-phosphorus fractions induced by cultivation practices and by laboratory incubations. Soil Sci Soc Am J 46:970–976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Hinsinger P (1998) How do plant roots acquire mineral nutrients? Chemical processes involved in the rhizosphere. Adv Agron 64:225–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hinsinger P, Plassard C, Tang CX, Jaillard B (2003) Origins of root-mediated pH changes in the rhizosphere and their responses to environmental constraints: a review. Plant Soil 248:43–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hocking PJ, Jeffery S (2004) Cluster-root production and organic anion exudation in a group of old-world lupins and a new-world lupin. Plant Soil 258:135–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Horst WJ, Kamh M, Jibrin JM, Chude VO (2001) Agronomic measures for increasing P availability to crops. Plant Soil 237:211–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Huang XL, Zhang JZ (2009) Neutral persulfate digestion at sub-boiling temperature in an oven for total dissolved phosphorus determination in natural waters. Talanta 78:1129–1135PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kamh M, Horst W, Amer F, Mostafa H, Maier P (1999) Mobilization of soil and fertilizer phosphate by cover crops. Plant Soil 211:19–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kamh M, Abdou M, Chude V, Wiesler F, Horst WJ (2002) Mobilization of phosphorus contributes to positive rotational effects of leguminous cover crops on maize grown on soils from northern Nigeria. J Plant Nutrition Soil Sci-Zeitsch Pflanzenern Bdkde 165:566–572Google Scholar
  13. Kouno K, Tuchiya Y, Ando T (1995) Measurement of soil microbial biomass phosphorus by an anion exchange membrane method. Soil Biol Biochem 27:1353–1357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kuo S (1996) Phosphorus. In: Sparks DL (ed) Methods of soil analysis. SSSA/ASA, Madison, pp 869–919Google Scholar
  15. Li CJ, Liang RX (2005) Root cluster formation and citrate exudation of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) as related to phosphorus availability. J Integr Plant Biol 47:172–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Li L, Tang CX, Rengel Z, Zhang FS (2003) Chickpea facilitates phosphorus uptake by intercropped wheat from an organic phosphorus source. Plant Soil 248:297–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Li SM, Li L, Zhang FS, Tang C (2004) Acid phosphatase role in chickpea/maize intercropping. Annals Bot 94:297–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Li H, Shen J, Zhang F, Clairotte M, Drevon J, Le Cadre E, Hinsinger P (2008) Dynamics of phosphorus fractions in the rhizosphere of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and durum wheat (Triticum turgidum durum L.) grown in monocropping and intercropping systems. Plant Soil 312:139–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Mat Hassan H, Marschner P, McNeill A, Tang C (2012a) Grain legume pre-crops and their residues affect the growth, P uptake and size of P pools in the rhizosphere of the following wheat. Biol Fertil Soils 48:1–11Google Scholar
  20. Mat Hassan H, Marschner P, McNeill A, Tang C (2012b) Growth, P uptake in grain legumes and changes in rhizosphere soil P pools. Biol Fertil Soils 48:151–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. McLaughlin M, Alston A, Martin J (1986) Measurement of phosphorus in the soil microbial biomass: a modified procedure for field soils. Soil Biol Biochem 18:437–443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Mondini C, Cayuela M, Sanchez-Monedero M, Roig A, Brookes P (2006) Soil microbial biomass activation by trace amounts of readily available substrate. Biol Fertil Soils 42:542–549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Morel C, Hinsinger P (1999) Root-induced modifications of the exchange of phosphate ion between soil solution and soil solid phase. Plant Soil 211:103–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Mózner Z, Tabi A, Csutora M (2012) Modifying the yield factor based on more efficient use of fertilizer—the environmental impacts of intensive and extensive agricultural practices. Ecol Indicators 16:58–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Murphy J, Riley JP (1962) A modified single solution method for the determination of phosphate in natural waters. Anal Chima Acta 27:31–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Nannipieri P, Giagnoni L, Landi L, Renella G (2011) Role of phosphatase enzymes in soil. In: Bünemann EK, Oberson A, Frossard E (Eds) Phosphorus in action, soil biology 26. Springer Berlin, pp 215-243Google Scholar
  27. Neumann G, Massonneau A, Martinoia E, Römheld V (1999) Physiological adaptations to phosphorus deficiency during proteoid root development in white lupin. Planta 208:373–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Nuruzzaman M, Lambers H, Bolland MDA, Veneklaas EJ (2005a) Phosphorus benefits of different legume crops to subsequent wheat grown in different soils of Western Australia. Plant Soil 271:175–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Nuruzzaman M, Lambers H, Bolland MDA, Veneklaas EJ (2005b) Phosphorus uptake by grain legumes and subsequently grown wheat at different levels of residual phosphorus fertiliser. Aus J Agric Res 56:1041–1047CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Nuruzzaman M, Lambers H, Bolland MDA, Veneklaas EJ (2006) Distribution of carboxylates and acid phosphatase and depletion of different phosphorus fractions in the rhizosphere of a cereal and three grain legumes. Plant Soil 281:109–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Reuter DJ, Robinson JB (1997) Plant analysis: an interpretation manual, 2nd edn. CSIRO, VictoriaGoogle Scholar
  32. Richardson AE, George TS, Hens M, Simpson RJ (2005) Utilization of soil organic phosphorus by higher plants. Organic phosphorus in the environment. CAB International, WallingfordGoogle Scholar
  33. Richardson AE, Hocking PJ, Simpson RJ, George TS (2009) Plant mechanisms to optimise access to soil phosphorus. Crop Pasture Sci 60:124–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Rose T, Hardiputra B, Rengel Z (2010) Wheat, canola and grain legume access to soil phosphorus fractions differs in soils with contrasting phosphorus dynamics. Plant Soil 326:159–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Sanyal S, De Datta S (1991) Chemistry of phosphorus transformations in soil, vol 16. Adv Soil Sci 16:1–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Tiessen H, Moir JO (1993) Characterization of available P by sequential extraction. In: Carter MR (ed) Soil sampling and methods of analysis. Lewis, Boca Raton, pp 75–86Google Scholar
  37. Veneklaas EJ, Stevens J, Cawthray GR, Turner S, Grigg AM, Lambers H (2003) Chickpea and white lupin rhizosphere carboxylates vary with soil properties and enhance phosphorus uptake. Plant Soil 248:187–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Vu DT, Tang C, Armstrong RD (2008) Changes and availability of P fractions following 65 years of P application to a calcareous soil in a Mediterranean climate. Plant Soil 304:21–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Vu DT, Armstrong RD, Sale PWG, Tang C (2010) Phosphorus availability for three crop species as a function of soil type and fertilizer history. Plant Soil 337:497–510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Wang X, Lester DW, Guppy CN, Lockwood PV, Tang C (2007) Changes in phosphorus fractions at various soil depths following long-term P fertiliser application on a black vertosol from south-eastern Queensland. Aus J Soil Res 45:524–532CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Wang X, Tang C, Guppy CN, Sale PWG (2010) Cotton, wheat and white lupin differ in phosphorus acquisition from sparingly soluble sources. Environ Exper Bot 69:267–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Wang Y, Marschner P, Zhang F (2011) Phosphorus pools and other soil properties in the rhizosphere of wheat and legumes growing in three soils in monoculture or as a mixture of wheat and legume. Plant Soil:1-16Google Scholar
  43. Wouterlood M, Cawthray GR, Scanlon TT, Lambers H, Veneklaas EJ (2004) Carboxylate concentrations in the rhizosphere of lateral roots of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) increase during plant development, but are not correlated with phosphorus status of soil or plants. New Phytol 162:745–753CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hasnuri Mat Hassan
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Hasbullah Hasbullah
    • 1
  • Petra Marschner
    • 1
  1. 1.Soils Group, School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, The Waite Research InstituteThe University of AdelaideAdelaideAustralia
  2. 2.School of Biological SciencesUniversiti Sains MalaysiaPulau PinangMalaysia

Personalised recommendations