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Biology and Fertility of Soils

, Volume 48, Issue 6, pp 643–650 | Cite as

Evaluation of ecological doses of the nitrification inhibitors 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) and 4-chloromethylpyrazole (ClMP) in comparison to dicyandiamide (DCD) in their effects on dehydrogenase and dimethyl sulfoxide reductase activity in soils

  • Ferisman TindaonEmail author
  • Gero Benckiser
  • Johannes C. G. Ottow
Original Paper

Abstract

Risk assessment of the nitrification inhibitors (NIs) 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP), 4-chloromethylpyrazole (ClMP), and dicyandiamide (DCD) on nontarget microbial activity in soils was determined by measuring dehydrogenase and dimethyl sulfoxide reductase activity (DHA, DRA, respectively) in three differently textured soils under laboratory conditions. Dehydrogenase activity was measured with standard procedure recommended to evaluate side effects of environmental chemicals on general microbial activity in soils. The kinetic of inhibition were obtained by dose–response relationships and used to calculate the no observable effect levels (NOEL values) and the effective doses at 10% and 50% inhibition (ED10 and ED50), respectively. Negative effects on DHA and DRA, respectively, were observed only at rates approximately 40–100 times higher than the concentrations recommended in the field. Both DHA and DRA were affected more in the sandy than in the silty or clayey soil. Consequently, NOEL, ED10, and ED50 values were considerably higher in the clayey than in the silty or sandy soil. The heterocyclic N compounds DMPP and ClMP, respectively, were more effective in inhibiting DHA and DRA than DCD. At application rates used in the field as well as at concentration up to 25 to 90 times higher, the NIs concerned failed to affect general soil microbial activity in soils. Among the three NIs tested, the not marketed ClMP exhibited the strongest negative effects on soil microbial activity. At recommended application rates, the NIs tested should be considered as enviromentally safe.

Keywords

Nitrification inhibitors Dehydrogenase activity Dimethyl sulfoxide reductase activity No observable effect level (NOEL) ED10 and ED50 

Notes

Acknowledgment

We highly regret that our supervisor and teacher Prof Johannes CG Ottow, who significantly contributed to this paper, unreckoningly died on August 20, 2011. Ferisman Tindaon gratefully acknowledges Prof Dr. JCG Ottow’s cooperativeness and a Ph.D. scholarship provided by Deutscher Akademischer Austauschsdienst (DAAD), Bonn, Germany. This work was supported by the German Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF; Grant Nr. 0339812).

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ferisman Tindaon
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Gero Benckiser
    • 1
  • Johannes C. G. Ottow
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for Applied MicrobiologyJustus Liebig UniversityGiessenGermany
  2. 2.Agroecotechnology Department, Faculty of AgricultureNommensen University MedanMedanIndonesia

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