Advertisement

Biology and Fertility of Soils

, Volume 46, Issue 3, pp 247–260 | Cite as

Simulation of N2O fluxes from Irish arable soils: effect of climate change and management

  • Mohamed Abdalla
  • Mike Jones
  • Mike Williams
Original Paper

Abstract

Emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) from an Irish arable soil were simulated using the DeNitrification–DeComposition (DNDC) model. The soil chosen was a free-draining sandy loam typical of the majority of cereal growing land in Ireland, and one that has been previously used to test and validate DNDC-model. DeNitrification–DeComposition model was considered suitable to estimate N2O fluxes from Irish arable soils however, underestimated the flux by 24%. The objectives of this study were to estimate future N2O fluxes from a spring barley field under conventional (moulboard plowing) and reduced (chisel plowing) tillage and different N-fertilzer application rates. Three climate scenarios, a baseline of measured climatic data from the weather station at Kilkenny and a high- and low-temperature-sensitive scenarios predicted by the Hadley Global Climate Model (HadCM4) based on the AB1 emission scenario of the Intergovernment Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) were investigated. For conventional tillage under all scenarios, three peaks of N2O emissions were predicted; an early spring peak coinciding mostly with soil plowing, a mid/late spring peak coinciding with fertilizer application and an early autumn peak coinciding with residue incorporation and onset of autumn rainfall. Under reduced tillage, due to the less amount of soil disturbance, the early spring peak was not predicted. In all cases, the total amount of N2O emitted in the late spring peak due to fertilizer application was less than the sum of the other peaks. Under climate change, using the high-temperature-increase scenario, DNDC predicted an increase in N2O emissions from both conventional and reduced tillage, ranging from 58% to 88% depending upon N application rate. In contrast, annual fluxes of N2O either decreased or increased slightly in the low temperature increase scenario relative to N application (−26 to +16%). Outputs from the model indicate that elevated temperature and precipitation increase N mineralization and total denitrification leading to greater fluxes of N2O. Annual uncertainties due to the use of two different future climate scenarios were significantly high, ranging from 74% to 95% and from 71% to 90% for the conventional and reduced tillage.

Keywords

Climate change Nitrous oxide Management Arable soils 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was funded by the EU sixth framework program (contract EVK2-CT2001-00105) and Irish EPA. We are grateful to the Irish National Meteorological Service Research Group (Met Éireann) for providing us with the HadMC4 climate projections and good collaboration. We are also grateful to Pete Smith, from the University of Aberdeen, for his valuable comments on the final draft.

References

  1. Abdalla M, Wattenbach M, Smith P, Ambus P, Jones M, Williams M (2009a) Application of the DNDC model to predict emissions of N2O from Irish agriculture. Geoderma 151:327–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abdalla M, Jones M, Ambus P, Williams M (2009b) Emissions of Nitrous oxide from Irish arable soils: effects of tillage and reduced N input. Nutr Cyc Agroecosys. doi: 10.1007/s10705-009-9273-8 Google Scholar
  3. Abdalla M, Jones M, Smith P, Williams M (2009c) Nitrous oxide fluxes and denitrification sensitivity to temperature in Irish pasture soils. Soil Use Manage. doi: 10.1111/j.1475-2743.2009.00237.x Google Scholar
  4. Addiscott TM (1983) Kinetics and temperature relationships of mineralization and nitrification in Rothamsted soils with differing histories. Soil Sci 34:343–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Antonopoulos AZ (1999) Comparison of different models to simulate soil temperature and moisture—effects on nitrogen mineralisation in the soil. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 162:667–675CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Arah JRM, Smith KA, Crichton IJ, Li HS (1991) Nitrous oxide production and denitrification from Scottish arable soils. Soil Sci 42:351–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Augustin J, Merbach W, Schmidt W, Reining E (1996) Effect of changing temperature and water table on trace gas emission from minerotrophic mires. Angew Bot 70:45–51Google Scholar
  8. Aulakh MS, Rennie DA, Paul EA (1984) The influence of plant residues on denitrification rates on conventional and zero-tilled soils. Soil Sci Soc Am J 48:790–794Google Scholar
  9. Aulakh MS, Doran JW, Walters DT, Mosier AR, Francis DD (1991) Crop residue type and placement effects on denitrification and mineralization. Soil Sci Soc Am J 55:1020–1025Google Scholar
  10. Baggs EM, Blum H (2004) CH4 oxidation and emissions of CH4 and N2O from Lolium perenne swards under elevated atmospheric CO2. Soil Biol Biochem 36:713–723CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Baggs EM, Rees RM, Smith KA, Vinten AJA (2000) Nitrous oxide emission from soil after incorporating crop residues. Soil Use Manag 16:82–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Baggs EM, Stevenson M, Pihlatie M, Regar A, Cook H, Cadish G (2003) Nitrous oxide emissions following application of residues and fertilizer under zero and conventional tillage. Plant Soil 254:361–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bailey VL, Smith JL, Bolton HJR (2002) Fungal to bacterial ratios in soils investigated for enhanced C sequestration. Soil Biol Biochem 34:997–1007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ball BC, Ritchie RM (1999) Soil and residue management effects on cropping conditions and nitrous oxide fluxes under controlled traffic in Scotland. Soil and crop responses. Soil Tillage Res 52:191–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Barrow E, Hulme M, Semenov M (1996) Effects of using different methods in the construction of different climate scenarios: example from Europe. Clim Res 7:195–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Beauchamp EG, Trevors JT, Paul JW (1989) Carbon sources for bacterial denitrification. Adv Soil Sci 10:113–142Google Scholar
  17. Beheydt D, Boeckx P, Ahmed HP, Van Cleemput O (2008) N2O emission from conventional and minimum-tilled soils. Biol Fertil Soils 44:863–873CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bouwman AF (1990) Exchange of greenhouse gas between terrestrial ecosystems and atmosphere. In: Bouwman AF (ed) Soil and the greenhouse effects. Wiley, Chichester, pp 61–127Google Scholar
  19. Bowden WB, Bormann FH (1986) Transport and loss of nitrous oxide in soil water after forest clear cutting. Science 233:867–869CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Bramley RGV, White RE (1990) The variability of nitrifying activity in field soils. Plant Soil 126:203–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Brown L, Syed B, Jarvis SC, Sneath RW, Phillips VR, Goulding KWT, Li C (2002) Development and application of a mechanistic model to estimate emission of nitrous oxide from UK agriculture. Atmos Environ 36:917–928CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Burgess MS, Mehuys GR, Madramootoo CA (2002) Decomposition of grain-corn residues (Zea mays L.): a litterbag study under three tillage systems. Can J Soil Sci 82:127–138Google Scholar
  23. Cai Z, Swamoto T, Li C, Kang G, Boonjawat J, Mosier A, Wassmann R, Tsuruta H (2003) Field validation of the DNDC-model for greenhouse gas emissions in East Asian cropping systems. Glob Biogeochem Cycles 17:1107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. C4I (2008) Community climate change consortium for Ireland. Ireland in a warmer world. Scientific predictions of the Irish climate in the twenty-first century. Final report. Access at: http://www.c4i.ie/docs/IrelandinaWarmerWorld.pdf
  25. Choudhary MA, Akramkhanov A, Saggar S (2002) Nitrous oxide emissions from a New Zealand cropped soil: tillage effects, spatial and seasonal variability. Agric Ecosyst Environ 93:33–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Christensen S, Tiedje JM (1990) Brief and vigorous N2O production by soil at spring thaw. Soil Sci 41:1–4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ciarlo E, Conti M, Bartoloni N, Rubio G (2008) Soil N2O emissions and N2O/(N2O+N2) ratio as affected by different fertilization practices and soil moisture. Biol Fertil Soils 44:991–995CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Clayton H, McTaggart IP, Parker J, Swan L, Smith KA (1997) Nitrous oxide emissions from fertilized grassland: a 2 years study of the effect of N fertilizer form and environmental conditions. Biol Fertil Soils 25:252–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Collins M, Booth BBB, Harris GR (2006) Towards quantifying uncertainty in transient climate change. Clim Dyn 27:127–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Conen F, Dobbie KE, Smith KA (2000) Predicting N2O emissions from agricultural land through related soil parameters. Glob Chang Biol 6:417–426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. CSO (2009) Irish Central Statistics Office. Access at: www.cso.ie
  32. Cunningham MH, Chaney K, Bradbury RB, Wilcox A (2004) Non-inversion tillage and farmland birds: a review with special reference to UK and Europe. Ibis 146(Suppl. 2):192–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. D’Haene K, Vermang J, Cornelis WM, Leroy BLM, Schiettecatte W, De Neve S, Gabriels D, Hofman G (2008) Reduced tillage effects on physical properties of silt loam soils growing root crops. Soil Tillage Res 99:279–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Davidson D (1991) Three varieties of knowledge. In: Phillips Griffith AP (ed) A J Ayer: memorial essays. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  35. De Catanzaro JB, Beauchamp EG (1985) The effect of some carbon substrates on denitrification rates and carbon utilization in soil. Biol Fertil Soils 1:183–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Dobbie KE, Smith KA (2001) The effects of temperature, water filled pore space and land use on N2O emissions from imperfectly drained gleysol. Eur J Soil Sci 52:667–673CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Dobbie KE, McTaggart IP, Smith KA (1999) Nitrous oxide emissions from intensive agricultural systems: variations between crops and seasons; key driving variables; and mean emission factors. Geophys Res Lett 104:26891–26899Google Scholar
  38. Drury CF, Zhang TQ, Kay BD (2003) The non-limiting and least limiting water ranges for soil nitrogen mineralisation. Soil Sci Soc Am J 67:1388–1404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Dueri S, Calanca PL, Fuhrer J (2007) Climate change affects farm nitrogen loss—A Swiss case study with a dynamics farm model. Agric Syst 93:191–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Eichner MJ (1990) Nitrous oxide emissions from fertilized soils: summary of available data. J Environ Qual 19:272–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Elmi AA, Madramootoo C, Hamel C, Liu A (2003) Denitrification and nitrous oxide to nitrous oxide plus dinitrogen ratios in the soil profile under three tillage systems. Biol Fertil Soils 38:340–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. EPA (2009) Irish Environmental Agency. Access at: www.epa.ie
  43. Estavillo JM, Merino P, Pinto M, Yamulki S, Gebauer G, Sapek A, Corre W (2002) Short-term effect of ploughing a permanent pasture on N2O production from nitrification and denitrification. Plant Soil 239:253–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Flechard C, Ambus P, Skiba U, Rees RM, Hensen A, Van den Pol A, Soussana JF, Jones M, Clifton-Brwon J, Raschi A, Horvath L, Van Amstel A, Neftel A, Jocher M, Ammann C, Fuhrer J, Calanca P, Thalman E, Pilegaard K, Di Marco C, Campbell C, Nemitz E, Hargreaves KJ, Levy P, Ball B, Jones S, Van de Bulk WCM, Groot T, Blom M, Gunnink H, Kasper G, Allard V, Cellier P, Laville P, Henault C, Bizouard F, Jolivot D, Abdalla M, Williams M, Baronti S, Berretti F, Grosz B, Dominques R (2007) Effects of climate and management intensity on nitrous oxide emissions in grassland systems across Europe. Agric Ecosyst Environ 121:135–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Flessa H, Ruser R (2002) N2O and CH4 fluxes in potato fields: automated measurement, management effects and temporal variation. Geoderma 105:307–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Flessa H, Potthoff M, Loftfield N (2002) Greenhouse estimates of CO2 and N2O emissions following surface application of grass mulch: importance of indigenous microflora of mulch. Soil Biol Biochem 34:875–879CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Frey SD, Elliott ET, Paustian K (1999) Bacterial and fungal abundance and biomass in conventional and no-tillage agroecosystems along two climatic gradients. Soil Biol Biochem 31:573–585CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Gebhardt MR, Daniel TC, Schweizer EE, Allmaras RR (1985) Conservation tillage. Science 230:625–629CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Grandy AS, Loecke TD, Parr S, Robertson GP (2006a) Long-term trends in nitrous oxide emissions, soil nitrogen, and crop yields of till and no-till cropping systems. J Environ Qual 35:1487–1495CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Grandy AS, Robertson GP, Thelen KD (2006b) Do productivity and environmental trade-off justify periodically cultivating no-till cropping systems? Agron J 98:1377–1388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Granli T, Bockman OC (1994) Nitrogen oxide from agriculture. Norw J Agric Sci 12:7–127Google Scholar
  52. Harrison PA, Butterfield RE (1996) Effects of climate change on Europe-wide winter wheat and sunflower productivity. Clim Res 7:225–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hellebrand HJ, Kern J, Scholz V (2003) Long-term studies on greenhouse gas fluxes during cultivation of energy crops on sandy soils. Atmos Environ 37:1635–1644CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Houghton JT, Callander BA, Varney SK (1992) Climate change the supplementary report to the IPCC Scientific Assessment. Cambridge University PressGoogle Scholar
  55. Hsieh CI, Leahy P, Kiely G, Li C (2005) The effect of future climate perturbations on N2O emissions from a fertilized humid grassland. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 73:15–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. IPCC (1997) Revised 1996 IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories. IPCC/OECD/IEA, IPCC, Geneva, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  57. IPCC (2001) Climate change 2001, third assessment report of the IPCC. Cambridge University Press, UKGoogle Scholar
  58. IPCC (2007) Changes in atmospheric constituents and in radiative forcing. Cambridge University Press, UKGoogle Scholar
  59. Jantilia CP, Dos Santos HP, Urquiaga S, Boddey RM, Alves BJR (2008) Fluxes of nitrous oxide from soil under different crop rotations and tillage systems in the south of Brazil. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 82:161–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kattenberg AF, Giorgi H, Grassl GA, Meehl JFB, Mitchell RJ, Stouffer T, Tokioka AJ, Weaver Wigley TML (1996) Climate models - projections of future climate, in climate change 1995. In: Houghton JT, Filho LGM, Callander BA, Harris N, Kattenberg A, Maskell K (eds) The science of climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 285–357Google Scholar
  61. Kesik M, Blagodatski S, Papen H, Butterbach-Bahl K (2006) Effect of pH, temperature and substrate on N2O, NO and CO2 production by Alcaligenes faecalis p. J Appl Microbiol 101:655–667CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Kirschbaum MUF (1995) The temperature dependence of soil organic matter decomposition, and the effect of global warming on soil organic C storage. Soil Biol Biochem 27:753–760CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Lachnicht SL, Hendrix PF, Potter RL, Coleman DC, Crossley DAJR (2004) Winter decomposition of transgenic cotton residue in conventional-till and no-till systems. Appl Soil Biol 27:135–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Lal R (2004) Soil carbon sequestration impacts on global climate change and food security. Sci 304:1623–1627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Li C (2000) Modelling trace gas emissions from agricultural ecosystems. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 58:259–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Li C (2003) Greenhouse gas emissions from croplands of China. Quat Sci 23:493–503Google Scholar
  67. Li C, Frolking S, Frolking TA (1992) A model of nitrous oxide evolution from soil driven by rainfall events.1. Model structure and sensitivity. Geophy Res 97:9759–9776Google Scholar
  68. Li C, Narayanan V, Harriss R (1996) Model estimate of N2O emissions from agricultural lands in the United States. Glob Biogeophy Cycl 10:297–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Li C, Zhuang Y, Cao M, Crill P, Dai Z, Frolking S, Moore B, Salas W, Song W, Wang X (2001) Comparing a process-based agro ecosystem model to the IPCC methodology for developing a national inventory of N2O emissions from arable lands in China. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 60:1–3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Li C, Frolking S, Butterbach-Bahl K (2005) Carbon sequestration in arable soils is likely to increase nitrous oxide emissions, offsetting reductions in climate radiative forcing. J Clim Change 72:321–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Linn DM, Doran JW (1984) Effect of water-filled pore space on carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide production in tilled and non-tilled soils. Soil Sci Soc Am J 48:1267–1272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Liu D, Zhang S, Zheng Y, Shoun H (2006) Denitrification by the mix-culturing of fungi and bacteria with shell. Microbiol Res 161:132–137CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Loecke TD, Robertson GP (2009) Soil resource heterogeneity in terms of litter aggregation promotes nitrous oxide fluxes and slows decomposition. Soil Biol Biochem 41:228–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Lu X, Cheng G (2009) Climate change effects on soil carbon dynamics and greenhouse gas emissions in Abies fabri forest of subalpine, southwest China. Soil Biol Biochem 41:1015–1021CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Lupwayi NZ, Clayton GW, O’Donovan JT, Harker KN, Turkington TK, Soon YK (2006) Nitrogen release during decomposition of crop residues under conventional and zero tillage. Can J Soil Sci 86:11–19Google Scholar
  76. MacKenzie AF, Fan MX, Cardin F (1998) Nitrous oxide emission in 3 years as affected by tillage, corn–soybean–alfalfa rotations, and nitrogen fertilization. J Environ Qual 27:698–703CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Malhi SS, Lemke R (2007) Tillage, crop residue and N fertilizer effects on crop yield, nutrient uptake, soil quality and N2O gas emissions in a second 4-years rotation cycle. Soil Tillage Res 96:269–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Met Éireann (2008) Annual report (2008). Access at: www.met.ie
  79. Mogge B, Kaiser EA, Munch JC (1999) Nitrous oxide emissions and denitrification N-losses from agricultural soils in the Bornhoved Lake region: Influence of organic Fertilizers and land-use. Soil Biol Biochem 31:1245–1252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Mosier AR, Klemedtsson L (1994) Measuring denitrification in the field. In: Weaver et al (Eds) Methods of soil analysis. Part 2. Soil Sci Soc Am J, Book Series No 5, Madison, W1, pp 1047-1065Google Scholar
  81. Mosier A, Kroeze C, Nevison C, Oenema O, Seitzinger S, Van Cleemput O, Abrahamsen G, Bouwman L, Bockman O, Drange H, Frolking S, Howarth R, Smith K, Bleken MA (1998) Closing the global N2O budget: nitrous oxide emissions through the agricultural nitrogen cycle. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 52:225–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Palma RM, Rimolo M, Saubidet MI, Conti ME (1997) Influence of tillage system on denitrification in maize-cropped soils. Biol Fertil Soils 25:142–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Pathak H, Li C, Wassmann R, Ladha JK (2006) Simulation of nitrogen balance in rice-wheat systems of the Indo-Gangetic plains. Soil Sci Soc Am J 70:1612–1622CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Potthoff M, Dyckmans J, Flessa H, Muhs A, Beese F, Joergensen RG (2005) Dynamics of maize (Zea mays L.) leaf straw mineralization as affected by the presence of soil and the availability of nitrogen. Soil Biol Biochem 37:1259–1266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Saggar S, Giltrap DL, Li C, Tate KR (2007) Modelling nitrous oxide emissions from grazed grassland in New Zealand. Agric Ecosyst Environ 119:205–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Schoenau JJ, Campbell CA (1996) Impact of crop residues on nutrient availability in conservation tillage systems. Can J Plant Sci 76:621–626Google Scholar
  87. Scott DE, Elliott LF, Papendick RI, Campbell GS (1986) Low temperature or low water effects on microbial decomposition of wheat residue. Soil Biol Biochem 18:577–582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Shen SM, Hart PBS, Powlson DS, Jenkinson DS (1989) The nitrogen cycle in the broad balk wheat experiment: 15N-labelled fertilizer residues in the soil and in the soil microbial biomass. Soil Biol Biochem 21:529–533CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Simek M, Elhottova D, Klimes F, Hopkins DW (2004) Emissions of N2O and CO2, denitrification measurements and soil properties in red clover and ryegrass stands. Soil Biol Biochem 36:9–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Six J, Feller C, Denef K, Ogle SM, De Moraes Sa JC, Albrecht A (2002) Soil organic matter, biota and aggregation in temperate and tropical soils—effects of no-tillage. Agron 22:755–775CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Six J, Ogle S, Breidt FJ, Contant RT, Mosier AR, Paustian K (2004) The potential to mitigate global warming with no-tillage management is only realized when practised in the long term. Glob Chang Biol 10:155–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Smith P (2004) Carbon sequestration in crop lands: the potential in Europe and the global context. Eur J Agron 20:229–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Smith P (2005) An overview of the permanence of soil organic carbon stocks: influence of the human-induced, indirect and natural effects. Eur J Soil Sci 56:673–680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Stanford G, Epstein E (1974) Nitrogen mineralization–water relations in soils. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 38:103–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Stange F, Butterbach-Bahl K, Papen H, Zechmeister-Boltenstern S, Li C, Aber J (2000) A process oriented model of N2O and NO emissions from forest soils: Sensitivity analysis and validation. J Geophys Res 105:4385–4398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Strahler AN (1969) Physical geography (3rd ed) New York. Jones CA, Ritchie JT, Kiniry JR, Godwin DC, Otter-Nacke SI (1984) The CERES wheat and maize model: Proceeding International symposium on minimum datasets for Agro-technology Transfer. ICRASET, Pantancheru (India), 95-100Google Scholar
  97. Tang H, Qiu J, Van Ranst E, Li C (2006) Estimation of soil organic carbon storage in cropland of China based on DNDC model. Goederma 134:200–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Teagasc (2009) The Irish Agriculture and Food department Authority. Access at: www.teagasc.ie
  99. Thomson PE, Parker JP, Arah JRM, Clayton H, Smith KA (1997) Automated soil monolith-flux chamber system for the study of trace gas fluxes. Soil Sci Soc Am J 61:323–1330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Tiedje JM, Sexstone AJ, Parkin TB, Revsbech NP, Shelton DR (1984) Anaerobic processes in soil. Plant Soil 76:197–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Van Bochove E, Prevost D, Pelletier F (2000) Effects of freeze-thaw and soil structure on nitrous oxide produced in a clay soil. Soil Sci Soc Am J 64:1638–1643CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Velthof GL, Oenema O (1997) Nitrous oxide emissions from dairy farming systems in the Netherlands. Ned J Agic Sci 45:347367Google Scholar
  103. Waksman SA, Gerretsen FC (1931) Influence of temperature and moisture upon the nature and extent of decomposition of plant residues. Ecology 12:33–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Wang Y, Xue M, Zheng X, Ji B, Du R, Wang Y (2005) Effects of environmental factors on N2O emission from and CH4 uptake by the typical grasslands in the Inner Mongolia. J Chemosph 58:205–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Wennman P, Katterer T (2006) Effects of moisture and temperature on carbon and nitrogen mineralisation in mine tailing mixed with sewage sludge. J Environ Qual 35:1135–1141CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Wrage N, Van Groenigen JW, Oenema O, Baggs EM (2005) A novel dual isotopes labelling method for distinguishing between soils sources of N2O. Rap Com Mass Spec 19:3298–3306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Yeluripati JB, Li C, Frolking S, Nayak DR, Adhya DK (2006) Field validation of DNDC model for methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice-based production systems of India. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 74:157–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Zou J, Huang Y, Lu Y, Zheng X, Wang Y (2005) Direct emission factor for N2O from rice-winter wheat rotation systems in southeast China. Atmos Environ 39:4755–4765CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Botany, School of Natural SciencesTrinity College DublinDublin 2Ireland

Personalised recommendations