Biology and Fertility of Soils

, Volume 45, Issue 6, pp 585–594 | Cite as

Enhanced establishment and growth of giant cardon cactus in an eroded field in the Sonoran Desert using native legume trees as nurse plants aided by plant growth-promoting microorganisms and compost

  • Yoav BashanEmail author
  • Bernardo Salazar
  • Ma. Esther Puente
  • Macario Bacilio
  • Robert Linderman
Original Paper


To evaluate the feasibility of long-term desert reforestation technology of mixed vegetation, cardon cactus (Pachycereus pringlei) seedlings from indoor and outdoor nurseries were planted in the field adjacent to one seedling of potential legume nurse trees: mesquite amargo (Prosopis articulata), yellow palo verde (Parkinsonia microphylla), and blue palo verde (Parkinsonia florida). Some of the planting holes were also supplemented with common dairy compost. Additionally, the combinations of legume tree–cactus were inoculated with either a consortium of desert arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB; the diazotroph Azospirillum brasilense Cd, and the phosphate solubilizer Paenibacillus sp.), or a mixture of all. The field experiments were evaluated periodically during 30 months for survival and growth. Cardons reared in an outdoor screen house survived better in the field than those reared in a controlled growth chamber and hardened later outdoors. Association with any legume nurse tree increased survival and enhanced growth of untreated cardons. For cardons growing alone, application of either compost, AM fungi, and all the treatments combined increased survival. For these plants, no treatment affected plant growth during the first 3 months after transplanting. Later, all treatments, except for AM fungi, enhanced plant growth. However, only 2 years after transplanting the enhanced growth effect of AM fungi was also significant. In the presence of the legume nurse trees, transient positive effects on cardon growth were recorded. General evaluation after 30 months of cultivation showed that the treatments positively affected cardon growth when growing alone or in combination only with mesquite amargo but not with the other two legume trees. This study proposes that young legume trees have the capacity to enhance survival and growth of cardon cactus, depending on the legume cactus combination. Additional treatments such as compost or PGPB can either amplify the effect or else attenuate it.


Azospirillum Cardon cactus Compost Desert Mesquite Mycorrhizae Nurse plants Pachycereus Palo verde Parkinsonia Plant growth-promoting bacteria PGPB PGPR Prosopis Reforestation Soil erosion 



We thank Claudia Rojas, Manuel Moreno, and Luis Leyva for technical assistance in establishing the initial stages of the field studies and Rocio Villalpando, Juan-Pablo Hernandez, Elsa Samarano, and Diana Arizmendi for taking plant measurements and for their help in hand irrigation of the field experiments for 2 years. We thank Jose-Luis Leon de la Luz for botanical advice and Luz de-Bashan for organizing the manuscript and assisting in organization of parts of the field work. This study was mainly supported by Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia of Mexico (CONACYT, contract #50052-Z) and partly funded by The Bashan Foundation, USA. Yoav Bashan participated in this study in memory of the late Avner Bashan of Israel.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yoav Bashan
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Bernardo Salazar
    • 1
  • Ma. Esther Puente
    • 1
  • Macario Bacilio
    • 1
  • Robert Linderman
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Environmental Microbiology GroupNorthwestern Center for Biological Research (CIBNOR)La PazMexico
  2. 2.Department of Soil, Water and Environmental ScienceThe University of ArizonaTucsonUSA
  3. 3.USDA-Agricultural Research ServiceCorvallisUSA
  4. 4.Plant Health, LLCCorvallisUSA

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