Biology and Fertility of Soils

, Volume 39, Issue 4, pp 219–227 | Cite as

Prospects and potentials for systems of biological nitrogen fixation in sustainable rice production

  • A. T. M. A. Choudhury
  • I. R. Kennedy
Review Article


The N requirement of rice crops is well known. To overcome acute N deficiency in rice soils, this element is usually supplied to the rice crop as the commercially available fertilizer urea. But unfortunately a substantial amount of the urea-N is lost through different mechanisms causing environmental pollution problems. Utilization of biological N fixation (BNF) technology can decrease the use of urea-N, reducing the environmental problems to a considerable extent. Different BNF systems have different potentials to provide a N supplement, and it is necessary to design appropriate strategies in order to use BNF systems for efficient N supply to a rice crop. Research has been conducted around the world to evaluate the potential of different BNF systems to supply N to rice crops. This paper reviews salient findings of these works to assess all the current information available. This review indicates that the aquatic biota Cyanobacteria and Azolla can supplement the N requirements of plants, replacing 30–50% of the required urea-N. BNF by some diazotrophic bacteria like Azotobacter, Clostridium, Azospirillum, Herbaspirillum and Burkholderia can substitute for urea-N, while Rhizobium can promote the growth physiology or improve the root morphology of the rice plant. Green manure crops can also fix substantial amounts of atmospheric N. Among the green manure crops, Sesbania rostrata has the highest atmospheric N2-fixing potential, and it has the potential to completely substitute for urea-N in rice cultivation.


Biological nitrogen fixation Sustainable rice production 


  1. App AA, Watanabe I, Ventura TS, Bravo M, Jurey CD (1986) The effect of cultivated and wild rice varieties on the nitrogen balance of flooded soil. Soil Sci 141:448–452Google Scholar
  2. Arangarasan V, Palaniappan SP, Chelliah S (1998) Inoculation effects of diazotrophs and phosphobacteria on rice. Indian J Microbiol 38:111–112Google Scholar
  3. Balandreau J (2002) The spermosphere model to select for plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. In: Kennedy IR, Choudhury ATMA (eds) Biofertilisers in action. Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation, Canberra, pp 55–63Google Scholar
  4. Baldani VLD, Döbereiner J (1980) Host-plant specificity in the infection of cereals with Azospirillum spp. Soil Biol Biochem 12:433–439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baldani JI, Baldani VLD, Seldin L, Döbereiner J (1986) Characterization of Herbaspirillum seropedicae gen. nov., sp. nov., a root-associated nitrogen-fixing bacterium. Int J Syst Bacteriol 36:86–93.Google Scholar
  6. Baldani JI, Caruso L, Baldani VLD, Goi SR, Döbereiner J (1997) Recent advances in BNF with non-legume plants. Soil Biol Biochem 29:911–922CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Baldani VLD, Baldani JI, Döbereiner J (2000) Inoculation of rice plants with the endophytic diazotrophs Herbaspirillum seropedicae and Burkholderia spp. Biol Fertil Soils 30:485–491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Begum ZNT, Mandal R, Khan ZUM, Hossain MZ (1996) Prospect and potentiality of cyanobacteria as an alternative source of nitrogen fertilizer in Bangladesh rice cultivation. In: Rahman M, Podder AK, Hove CV, Begum ZNT, Heulin T, Hartmann A (eds) Biological nitrogen fixation associated with rice production. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp 119–131Google Scholar
  9. Bin J (1983) Utilization of green manure for raising soil fertility in China. Soil Sci 135:65–69Google Scholar
  10. Biswas JC, Ladha JK, Dazzo FB (2000a) Rhizobia inoculation improves nutrient uptake and growth of lowland rice. Soil Sci Soc Am J 64:1644–1650Google Scholar
  11. Biswas JC, Ladha JK, Dazzo FB, Yanni YG, Rolfe BG (2000b) Rhizobial inoculation influences seedling vigour and yield of rice. Agron J 92:880–886Google Scholar
  12. Chandra K, Singh KJ (1996) Effect of Azotobacter and phosphate solubilizing micro organism on yield of rice crop. Environ Ecol 14:39–41Google Scholar
  13. Choudhury ATMA, Khanif YM (2001) Evaluation of the effects of nitrogen and magnesium fertilization on rice yield and fertilizer nitrogen efficiency using 15N tracer technique. J Plant Nutr 24:855–871CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Choudhury ATMA, Zaman SK, Bhuiyan NI (1996) Stem cutting of dhaincha (Sesbania rostrata) green manuring as substitute of urea-N for rainfed lowland rice. Bangladesh J Agric Sci 23: 101–104Google Scholar
  15. Choudhury ATMA, Khanif YM, Aminuddin H, Zakaria W (2002a) Effects of copper and magnesium fertilization on rice yield and nitrogen use efficiency: a 15N tracer study. In: Proceedings of the 17th World Congress of Soil Science, Bangkok, Thailand Symposium no. 50, paper no. 226, pp 1–10Google Scholar
  16. Choudhury ATMA, Zaman SK, Bhuiyan NI (2002b) Sesbania: a potential nitrogen source for sustainable rice production. In: Kennedy IR, Choudhury ATMA (eds) Biofertilisers in action. Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation, Canberra, pp 94–101Google Scholar
  17. Cissé M, Vlek PLG (2003) Influence of urea on biological N2 fixation and N transfer from Azolla intercropped with rice. Plant Soil 250:105–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dargen SK, Chilli RK, Bhardwaj KKB (1975) Alkali soils: green manuring for more paddy. Indian Farming 25:13–15Google Scholar
  19. De Datta SK (1978) Fertilizer management for efficient use in wetland rice soils. In: Soils and rice. International Rice Research Institute, Los Baños, Philippines, pp 671–679Google Scholar
  20. De Datta SK (1981) Principles and practices of rice production. John Wiley & Sons, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  21. De Datta SK, Buresh RJ (1989) Integrated nitrogen management in irrigated rice. Adv Soil Sci 10:143–169Google Scholar
  22. Dreyfus B, Garcia JL, Gillis M (1988) Characterization of Azorhizobium caulinodans gen. nov., sp. nov., a stem-nodulating nitrogen-fixing bacterium isolated from Sesbania rostrata. Int J Sys Bacteriol 38:89–98Google Scholar
  23. Elbadry M, El-Bassel A, Elbanna K (1999) Occurrence and dynamics of phototrophic purple nonsulphur bacteria compared with other asymbiotic nitrogen fixers in rice fields of Egypt. World J Microb Biotech 15:359–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Estrada-de los Santos P, Bustilios-Cristales R, Caballero-Mellado J (2001) Burkholderia, a genus rich in plant-associated nitrogen fixers with wide environmental and geographic distribution. Appl Environ Microbiol 67:2790–2798Google Scholar
  25. Galal YGM (1997) Estimation of nitrogen fixation in an Azolla -rice association using the nitrogen-15 isotope dilution technique. Biol Fertil Soils 24:76–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ghai SK, Rao DLN, Batra L (1988) Nitrogen contribution to wetland rice by green manuring with Sesbania spp in an alkaline soil. Biol Fertil Soils 6:22–25Google Scholar
  27. Gillis M, Tran Van V, Bardin R, Goor M, Hebbar P, Willems A, Segers P, Kersters K, Heulin T, Fernandez MP (1995) Polyphasic taxonomy in the genus Burkholderia leading to an amended description of the genus and proposition of Burkholderia vietmaniensis sp. nov. for N2-fixing isolates from rice in Vietnam. Int J Sys Bacteriol 45:274–289Google Scholar
  28. Grant IF, Roger PA, Watanabe I (1986) Ecosystem manipulation for increasing biological N2 fixation by blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) in lowland rice fields. Biol Agric Hortic 3:299–315Google Scholar
  29. Gyaneshwar P, James EK, Reddy PM, Ladha JK (2002) Herbaspirillum colonization increases growth and nitrogen accumulation in aluminium-tolerant rice varieties. New Phytol 154:131–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hashem MA (2001) Problems and prospects of cyanobacterial biofertilizer for rice cultivation. Aust J Plant Physiol 28:881–888CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hashem MA, Islam MR, Banu NA (1995) Nitrogen fixation and salinity reduction by blue-green algae. Bangladesh J Agric Sci 22:251–256Google Scholar
  32. Hove CV, Lejeune A (1996) Does Azolla has any future in agriculture? In: Rahman M, Podder AK, Hove CV, Begum ZNT, Heulin T, Hartmann A (eds) Biological nitrogen fixation associated with rice production. Kluwer Aacademic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp 83–94Google Scholar
  33. Inubushi K, Watanabe I (1986) Dynamics of available nitrogen in paddy soils. II. Mineralized N of chloroform-fumigated soil as a nutrient source for rice. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 32:561–577Google Scholar
  34. IRRI (International Rice Research Institute) (2003) World rice statistics.
  35. Islam N, Bora LC (1998) Biological management of bacterial leaf blight of rice (Oryza sativa) with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. Indian J Agric Sci 68:798–800Google Scholar
  36. James EK, Gyaneshwar P, Mathan N, Barraquio WL, Reddy PM, Iannetta PPM, Olivares FL, Ladha JK (2002) Infection and colonization of rice seedlings by the plant growth-promoting bacterium Herbaspirillum seropedicae Z67. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 15:894–906PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Jeyabal A, Kuppuswamy G (2001) Recycling of organic wastes for the production of vermicompost and its response in rice-legume cropping system and soil fertility. Eur J Agron 15:153–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kannaiyan S (1993) Nitrogen contribution by Azolla to rice crop. Proc Indian Natl Sci Acad Part B Biol Sci 59:309–314Google Scholar
  39. Kannaiyan S (1999) Biological fertilizers for rice production. In: Kannaiyan S (ed) Bioresources technology for sustainable agriculture. Associate Publishing Company, New Delhi, pp 1–29Google Scholar
  40. Kannaiyan S, Somporn C (1989) Effect of high temperature on growth, nitrogen fixation and chlorophyll content of five species of Azolla - Anabaena symbiosis. Biol Fertil Soils 7:168–172Google Scholar
  41. Kannaiyan S, Govindarajan K, Lewin HD (1980) Effect of foliar spray of Azotobacter chroococcum on rice crop. Plant Soil 56:487–490Google Scholar
  42. Kannaiyan S, Aruna SJ, Kumari SMP, Hall DO (1997) Immobilized cyanobacteria as biofertilizer for rice crop. J Appl Phycol 19:167–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kanungo PK, Ramakrishnan B, Rao VR (1997) Placement effect of organic sources on nitrogenase activity and nitrogen-fixing bacteria in flooded rice soils. Biol Fertil Soils 25:103–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kennedy IR, Islam N (2001) The current and potential contribution of asymbiotic nitrogen fixation to nitrogen requirements on farms: a review. Aust J Exp Agric 41:447–457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kennedy IR, Tchan Y (1992) Biological nitrogen fixation in non-leguminous field crops: recent advances. Plant Soil 141:93–118Google Scholar
  46. Khamas KM, Ageron E, Grimont PAD, Kaiser P (1994) The nitrogen-fixing bacteria from Iraqi rice-field soils. Eur J Soil Biol 30:101–106Google Scholar
  47. Kundu DK, Ladha JK (1995) Enhancing soil nitrogen use and biological nitrogen fixation in wetland rice. Exp Agric 31:261–277Google Scholar
  48. Ladha JK, Kundu DK (1997) Legumes for sustaining soil fertility in lowland rice. In: Rupela OP, Johansen C, Herridge DF (eds) Extending nitrogen fixation research to farmers’ fields. International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, Patancheru, Andra Pradesh, India, pp 76–102Google Scholar
  49. Ladha JK, Reddy PM (1995) Extension of nitrogen fixation to rice—necessity and possibilities. GeoJournal 35:363–372Google Scholar
  50. Ladha JK, Baraquio WL, Watanabe I (1982) Immunological techniques to identify Azospirillum associated with rice. Can J Microbiol 28:478–485PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Ladha JK, Tirol AC, Daroy MLG, Caldo G, Ventura W, Watanabe I (1986) Plant-associated N2 fixation (C2H2-reduction) by five rice varieties, and relationship with plant growth characters as affected by straw incorporation. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 32:91–106Google Scholar
  52. Ladha JK, So RB, Watanabe I (1987a) Composition of Azospirillum species associated with wetland rice plant grown in different soils. Plant Soil 102:127–129Google Scholar
  53. Ladha JK, Tirol-Pande A, Punzalan GC, Watanabe I (1987b) Nitrogen-fixing (C2H2-reducing) activity and plant growth characters of 16 wetland rice varieties. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 33:187–200Google Scholar
  54. Ladha JK, Garcia M, Pareek RP, Rarivoson G (1992a) Relative contributions to nitrogenase (acetylene reducing) activity of stem and root nodules in Sesbania rostrata. Can J Microbiol 38:577–583Google Scholar
  55. Ladha JK, Pareek RP, Becker M (1992b) Stem-nodulating legume- Rhizobium symbiosis and its agronomic use in lowland rice. Adv Soil Sci 20:147–192Google Scholar
  56. Ladha JK, Kundu DK, Coppenolle MGA, Peoples MB, Carangal VR, Dart PJ (1996) Legume productivity and soil nitrogen dynamics in lowland rice-based cropping systems. Soil Sci Soc Am J 60:183–192Google Scholar
  57. Malarvizhi P, Ladha JK (1999) Influence of available nitrogen and rice genotype on associative dinitrogen fixation. Soil Sci Soc Am J 63: 93–99Google Scholar
  58. Malik KA, Mirza MS, Hassan U, Mehnaz S, Rasul G, Haurat J, Bally R, Normand P (2002) The role of plant-associated beneficial bacteria in rice-wheat cropping system. In: Kennedy IR, Choudhury ATMA (eds) Biofertilisers in action. Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation, Canberra, pp 73–83Google Scholar
  59. Matsuguchi T (1979) Factors affecting heterotrophic nitrogen fixation in submerged rice soils. In: Nitrogen and rice. International Rice Research Institute, Los Baños, Philippines, pp 207–222Google Scholar
  60. Mian MH (1984) A 15N tracer study to differentiate nitrogen supply to flooded rice plants by Azolla and Anabaena during their early and later stages of decomposition. Indian J Agril Sci 54:733–738Google Scholar
  61. Mian MH (1985) Relative nitrogen supply from 15N-labelled Azolla and blue-green algae to IR8 rice grown in pots under flooded conditions. Philipp Agric 68: 415–423Google Scholar
  62. Mian MH (2002) Azobiofer: a technology of production and use of Azolla as biofertiliser for irrigated rice and fish cultivation. In: Kennedy IR, Choudhury ATMA (eds) Biofertilisers in action. Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation, Canberra, pp 45–54Google Scholar
  63. Mian MH, Kashem MA (1995) Comparative efficiency of some selected methods of applying Azolla for cultivation of irrigated rice. Bangladesh J Crop Sci 6: 29–36Google Scholar
  64. Mirza MS, Rasul G, Mehnaz S, Ladha JK, So RB, Ali S, Malik KA (2000) Beneficial effects of inoculated nitrogen-fixing bacteria on rice. In: Ladha JK, Reddy PM (eds) The quest for nitrogen fixation in rice. International Rice Research Institute, Los Baños, Philippines, pp 191–204Google Scholar
  65. Mishustin EN, Emtsev VT, Lockmacheva RA (1983) Anaerobic nitrogen-fixing microorganisms of the Clostridium genus and their activity in soil. Biol Bull 9:548–558Google Scholar
  66. Moore AW (1969) Azolla: biology and agronomic significance. Bot Rev 35:17–30Google Scholar
  67. Mulder EG (1975) Physiology and ecology of free-living nitrogen-fixing bacteria. In: Stewart WDP (ed) Nitrogen fixation by free-living micro-organisms. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 3–28Google Scholar
  68. Murty MG, Ladha JK (1988) Influence of Azospirillum inoculation on the mineral uptake and growth of rice under hydroponic conditions. Plant Soil 108:281–285Google Scholar
  69. Nakata PA (2002) The generation of a transposon-mutagenized Burkholderia glumae library to isolate novel mutants. Plant Sci 162:267–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Nayak DN, Ladha JK, Watanabe I (1986) The fate of marker Azospirillum lipoferum inoculated into rice and its effect on growth, yield and N2 fixation of plants studied by acetylene reduction, 15N2 feeding and 15N dilution techniques. Biol Fertil Soils 2:7–14Google Scholar
  71. Nguyen TH, Kennedy IR, Roughley RJ (2002) The response of field-grown rice to inoculation with a multi-strain biofertiliser in the Hanoi district, Vietnam. In: Kennedy IR, Choudhury ATMA (eds) Biofertilisers in Action. Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation, Canberra, pp 37–44Google Scholar
  72. Pareek RP, Ladha JK, Watanabe I (1990) Estimating N2-fixation by Sesbania rostrata and S. cannabina (Syn. S. aculeaata) in lowland rice soil by the 15N dilution method. Biol Fertil Soils 10:77–88Google Scholar
  73. Peoples MB, Herridge DF, Ladha JK (1995) Biological nitrogen fixation: an efficient source of nitrogen for sustainable agricultural production. Plant Soil 174:3–28Google Scholar
  74. Pereira JAR, Cavalcante VA, Baldani JI, Döbereiner J (1988) Field inoculation of sorghum and rice with Azospirillum spp. and Herbaspirillum seropedicae. Plant Soil 110:269–274Google Scholar
  75. Pimentel JP, Olivares F, Pitard RM, Urquiaga S, Akiba F, Döbereiner J (1991) Dinitrogen fixation and infection of grass leaves by Pseudomonas rubrisubalbicans and Herbaspirillum seropedicae. Plant Soil 137:61–65Google Scholar
  76. Ponnamperuma FN (1972) The chemistry of submerged soils. Adv Agron 24: 29–96Google Scholar
  77. Ponnamperuma FN, Deturck P (1993) A review of fertilization in rice production. Int Rice Commun Newsl 42:1–12Google Scholar
  78. Rao VR (1976) Nitrogen fixation as influenced by moisture content, ammonium sulphate and organic sources in a paddy soil. Soil Biol Biochem 8:445–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Rao VR (1978) Effect of carbon sources on asymbiotic nitrogen fixation in a paddy soil. Soil Biol Biochem 10:319–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Reeves TG, Waddington SR, Ortiz-Monasterio I, Bänziger M, Cassaday K (2002) Removing nutritional limits to maize and wheat production: A developing country perspective. In: Kennedy IR, Choudhury ATMA (eds) Biofertilisers in Action. Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation, Canberra, pp 11–36Google Scholar
  81. Roger PA, Kulasooriya SA (1980) Blue-Green Algae and Rice. International Rice Research Institute, Los Baños, PhilippinesGoogle Scholar
  82. Roger PA, Ladha JK (1992) Biological N2 fixation in wetland rice fields: estimation and contribution to nitrogen balance. Plant Soil 141:41–45Google Scholar
  83. Roger PA, Watanabe I (1986) Technologies for utilizing biological nitrogen fixation in wetland rice: potentials, current usage and limiting factors. Fert Res 9:39–77Google Scholar
  84. Roncato-Maccari LDB, Ramos HJO, Pedrosa FO, Alquini Y, Chubatsu LS, Yates MG, Rigo LU, Steffens MBR, Souza EM (2003) Root colonization, systematic spreading and contribution of Herbaspirillum seropedicae to growth of rice seedlings. Symbiosis 35:261–270Google Scholar
  85. Roper MM, Ladha JK (1995) Biological N2 fixation by heterotrophic and phototrophic bacteria in association with straw. Plant Soil 174:211–224Google Scholar
  86. Sahrawat KL (2000) Macro and micronutrients removed by upland and lowland rice cultivars in West Africa. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 31:717–723Google Scholar
  87. Sano Y, Fujii T, Iyama S, Hirota Y, Komagata K (1981) Nitrogen fixation in the rhizosphere of cultivated and wild rice strains. Crop Sci 21:758–761Google Scholar
  88. Saralov AI, Babanazarov TR (1983) Characteristics of the microflora and nitrogen fixation in the takyr soils of the rice fields in the Karakapak ASSR. Microbiol 51:682–686Google Scholar
  89. Sarkar A, Jana S (1986) Heavy metal pollutant tolerance of Azolla pinnata. Water Air Soil Pollut 27:15–18Google Scholar
  90. Shiomi N, Kitoh S (1987) Nutrient absorption capacity of Azolla from waste water and use of Azolla plant as biomass. J Plant Nutr 10:1663–1670Google Scholar
  91. Shrestha RK, Ladha JK (1996) Genotypic variation in promotion of rice dinitrogen fixation as determined by nitrogen-15 dilution. Soil Sci Soc Am J 60:1815–1821Google Scholar
  92. Shrestha RK, Ladha JK (1998) Nitrate in groundwater and integration of nitrogen-catch crop in rice-sweet pepper cropping system. Soil Sci Soc Am J 62:1610–1619Google Scholar
  93. Singh AL, Singh PK (1990) Intercropping of Azolla biofertlizer with rice at different crop geometry. Trop Agric 67:350–354Google Scholar
  94. Singh MS, Devi RKT, Singh NI (1999) Evaluation of methods for Azotobacter application on the yield of rice. Indian J Hill Farm 12:22–24Google Scholar
  95. Stewart WDP (1980) Some aspects of structure and function in N2-fixing cyanobacteria. Annu Rev Microbiol 34:497–536CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Tran Van V, Mavingui P, Berge O, Balandreau J, Heulin T (1994) Promotion de croissance du riz inoculé par une bactérie fixatrice d’azote, Burkholderia vietnamiensis, isolée d’un sol sulfaté acide du Viêt-nam. Agronomie 14:697–707Google Scholar
  97. Tran Van V, Berge O, Ke SN, Balandreau J, Heulin T (2000) Repeated beneficial effects of rice inoculation with a strain of Burkholderia vietnamiensis on early and late yield components in low fertility sulphate acid soils of Vietnam. Plant Soil 218:273–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Uma D, Kannaiyan S (1999) Studies on salt stress on growth, ammonia excretion and nitrogen fixation by the cyanobacterial mutant Anabaena variabilis—NTG-2T-SK-DU. J Microb World 1:9–18Google Scholar
  99. Vandamme P, Goris J, Chen Wen-Ming, Vos Paul de, Willems A (2002) Burkholderia tuberum sp. nov. and Burkholderia phymatum sp. nov., nodulate the roots of tropical legumes. System Appl Microbiol 25:507–512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Ventura W, Mascarina GB, Furoc RE, Watanabe I (1987) Azolla and Sesbania as biofertilizers for lowland rice. Philipp J Crop Sci 12:61–69Google Scholar
  101. Wu P, Zhang G, Ladha JK, McCouch SR, Huang N (1995) Molecular-marker-facilitated investigation on the ability to stimulate N2 fixation in the rhizosphere by irrigated rice plants. Theor Appl Genet 91:1177–1183Google Scholar
  102. Yanni YG, El-Fattah FKA (1999) Towards integrated biofertilization management with free living and associative dinitrogen fixers for enhancing rice performance in the Nile delta. Symbiosis 27:319–331Google Scholar
  103. Yanni YG, Rizk RY, Corich V, Squartini A, Ninke K, Philip-Hollingsworth S, Orgambide G, de Bruijn F, Stoltzfus J, Buckley D, Schmidt TM, Mateos PF, Ladha JK, Dazzo FB (1997) Natural endophytic association between Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii and rice and assessment of its potential to promote rice growth. Plant Soil 194:99–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Zaman SK, Choudhury ATMA, Bhuiyan NI (1994) Stem cutting Sesbania rostrata: an approach of green manure establishment for rainfed lowland rice. Thai J Agric Sci 27:269–276Google Scholar
  105. Zaman SK, Parul SS, Ahmed HU, Bhuiyan NI (1997) Effect of ploughpan management on the performance of rice varieties under drought prone rainfed lowland environment. Thai J Agric Sci 30:491–500Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.SUNFix Centre for Nitrogen Fixation, Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Natural ResourcesThe University of SydneyAustralia

Personalised recommendations