Graphs and Combinatorics

, Volume 31, Issue 2, pp 427–452 | Cite as

Geometric Biplane Graphs II: Graph Augmentation

  • Alfredo García
  • Ferran Hurtado
  • Matias Korman
  • Inês Matos
  • Maria Saumell
  • Rodrigo I. Silveira
  • Javier Tejel
  • Csaba D. Tóth
Original Paper


We study biplane graphs drawn on a finite point set \(S\) in the plane in general position. This is the family of geometric graphs whose vertex set is \(S\) and which can be decomposed into two plane graphs. We show that every sufficiently large point set admits a 5-connected biplane graph and that there are arbitrarily large point sets that do not admit any 6-connected biplane graph. Furthermore, we show that every plane graph (other than a wheel or a fan) can be augmented into a 4-connected biplane graph. However, there are arbitrarily large plane graphs that cannot be augmented to a 5-connected biplane graph by adding pairwise noncrossing edges.


Geometric graphs Biplane graphs \(k\)-connected graphs Graph augmentation 



A. G., F. H., M. K., R.I. S. and J. T. were partially supported by ESF EUROCORES programme EuroGIGA, CRP ComPoSe: grant EUI-EURC-2011-4306, and by project MINECO MTM2012-30951/FEDER. F. H., and R.I. S. were also supported by project Gen. Cat. DGR 2009SGR1040. A. G. and J. T. were also supported by project E58(ESF)-DGA. M. K. was supported by the Secretary for Universities and Research of the Ministry of Economy and Knowledge of the Government of Catalonia and the European Union. I. M. was supported by FEDER funds through COMPETE-Operational Programme Factors of Competitiveness, CIDMA and FCT within project PEst-C/MAT/UI4106/2011 with COMPETE number FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-022690. M. S. was supported by the project NEXLIZ - CZ.1.07/2.3.00/30.0038, which is co-financed by the European Social Fund and the state budget of the Czech Republic, and by ESF EuroGIGA project ComPoSe as F.R.S.-FNRS-EUROGIGA NR 13604. R. S. was funded by Portuguese funds through CIDMA (Center for Research and Development in Mathematics and Applications) and FCT (Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia), within project PEst-OE/MAT/UI4106/2014, and by FCT grant SFRH/BPD/88455/2012. C. T. was supported in part by NSERC (RGPIN 35586) and NSF (CCF-0830734).


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Copyright information

© Springer Japan 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alfredo García
    • 1
  • Ferran Hurtado
    • 2
  • Matias Korman
    • 3
  • Inês Matos
    • 4
  • Maria Saumell
    • 5
  • Rodrigo I. Silveira
    • 2
  • Javier Tejel
    • 1
  • Csaba D. Tóth
    • 6
  1. 1.Departamento de Métodos Estadísticos, IUMAUniversidad de ZaragozaZaragozaSpain
  2. 2.Departament de Matemàtica Aplicada IIUPCBarcelonaSpain
  3. 3.Erato Kawarabayashi Large Graph Project, JSTNational Institute of Informatics (NII)TokyoJapan
  4. 4.Departamento de Matemática and CIDMAUniversidade de AveiroAveiroPortugal
  5. 5.Department of Mathematics and European Centre of Excellence NTIS (New Technologies for the Information Society)University of West BohemiaPilsenCzech Republic
  6. 6.Department of MathematicsCalifornia State University NorthridgeLos AngelesUSA

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