OP-MR: the implementation of order picking based on mixed reality in a smart warehouse

  • Ummi Khaira Latif
  • Soo Young ShinEmail author
Original Article


This paper presents a mixed-reality (MR) application called order picking with mixed reality (OP-MR) for the order-picking activities in a smart warehouse. OP-MR is a set of applications operated by an administrator through a computer server and by the staff using the HoloLens MR device. OP-MR is built to reduce the operational time of an order-picking activity by providing the shortest route to the staff. The HoloLens device displays the order-picking instructions through the MR window, renders virtual navigation, and virtually marks the positions of items. For determining the shortest distance for an order picking, the proposed OP-MR method combines two different algorithms, namely the Held–Karp algorithm in the server and A* algorithm in the client. The Held–Karp algorithm sorts the items in the pick-up list based on the nearest position. Next, the A* algorithm determines the shortest route to ensure that a user travels the shortest distance to pick all the items. To show the effectiveness of the proposed OP-MR method, OP-MR is implemented and experiments are performed. The experimental results show that OP-MR outperforms paper-based order-picking from the viewpoint of completing all the order picking.


Order picking Mixed reality Route optimization 



This work was supported by the Kumoh National Institute of Technology (KIT), Gumi, Republic of Korea (No.2019-104-139).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in the studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its subsequent amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Supplementary material

Supplementary material 1 (mp4 32633 KB)


  1. 1.
    Bartholdi, J.J., Hackman, S.T.: Warehouse and Distribution Science: Release 0.89. Supply Chain and Logistics Institute, Atlanta (2008)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Frazelle, E., Frazelle, E.: World-Class Warehousing and Material Handling, vol. 1. McGraw-Hill, New York (2002)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    De Koster, M.: Warehousing in the Global Supply Chain, pp. 457–473. Springer, Berlin (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Reif, R., Günthner, W.A.: Pick-by-vision: augmented reality supported order picking. Vis. Comput. 25(5–7), 461 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Schwerdtfeger, B., Klinker, G.: Supporting order picking with augmented reality. In: Proceedings of the 7th IEEE/ACM international Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality IEEE Computer Society, pp. 91–94 (2008)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gerstweiler, G., Platzer, K., Kaufmann, H.: Dargs: dynamic ar guiding system for indoor environments. Computers 7(1), 5 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gerstweiler, G., Vonach, E., Kaufmann, H.: Hymotrack: a mobile ar navigation system for complex indoor environments. Sensors 16(1), 17 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Shmoys, D.B., Williamson, D.P.: Analyzing the Held-Karp tsp bound: a monotonicity property with application. Inf. Process. Lett. 35(6), 281 (1990)MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cui, S.G., Wang, H., Yang, L.: A simulation study of A-star algorithm for robot path planning. In 16th International Conference on Mechatronics Technology. pp. 506–510 (2012)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Klein, G.: Visual Tracking for Augmented Reality. Ph.D. thesis, University of Cambridge (2006)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ishii, H.: Augmented reality. Fundamentals and nuclear related applications. Int. Electron. J. Nucl. Saf. Simul. 1(4), 316 (2010)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Funk, M., Shirazi, A.S., Mayer, S., Lischke, L., Schmidt, A.: Pick from here!: an interactive mobile cart using in-situ projection for order picking. In: Proceedings of the 2015 ACM International Joint Conference on Pervasive and Ubiquitous Computing ACM, pp. 601–609 (2015) Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    paaron301. How Inside-out Tracking Works—Enthusiast Guide. Accessed 7 May 2018
  14. 14.
    Isler, C., Righetto, G., Morabito, R.: Optimizing the order picking of a scholar and office supplies warehouse. Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 87(5–8), 2327 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bowman, D., Kruijff, E., LaViola Jr., J.J., Poupyrev, I.P.: 3D User Interfaces: Theory and Practice, CourseSmart eTextbook. Addison-Wesley, Boston (2004)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Guo, A., Wu, X., Shen, Z., Starner, T., Baumann, H., Gilliland, S.: Order picking with head-up displays. Computer 48(6), 16 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gerstweiler, G., Platzer, K., Kaufmann, H.: Dargs: dynamic AR guiding system for indoor environments. Computers 7(1), 5 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bellman, R.: Dynamic programming treatment of the travelling salesman problem. J. ACM (JACM) 9(1), 61 (1962)MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Johnson, R., Hoeller, J., Donald, K., Sampaleanu, C., Harrop, R., Risberg, T., Arendsen, A., Davison, D., Kopylenko, D., Pollack, M., et al.: The spring framework-reference documentation. Interface 21, 27 (2004)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Held, M., Karp, R.M.: A dynamic programming approach to sequencing problems. J. Soc. Ind. Appl. Math. 10(1), 196 (1962). MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Cui, X., Shi, H.: An overview of pathfinding in navigation mesh. Int. J. Comput. Sci. Netw. Secur. 12(12), 48 (2012)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Cui, X., Shi, H.: A*-based pathfinding in modern computer games. Int. J. Comput. Sci. Netw. Secur. 11(1), 125 (2011)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hart, P.E., Nilsson, N.J., Raphael, B.: A formal basis for the heuristic determination of minimum cost paths. IEEE Trans. Syst. Sci. Cybern. 4(2), 100 (1968)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Goyal, A., Mogha, P., Luthra, R., Sangwan, N.: Path finding: A* or dijkstra’s? IJITE 2, 13–14 (2014)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dept. of IT Convergence EngineeringKumoh National Institute of TechnologyGumiRepublic of Korea

Personalised recommendations